Main Article Content
Because of the difficulty in their vegetative propagation, both Rhus coriaria L. and Cotinus coggygria Scop. (Ancardaceae) are rarely introduced into the forest nursery trade. Vegetative propagation is practiced in forestry to produce seedlings of desired genetic properties within a short period and when seeds displaying a status of complex dormancy. In the present study, the possibility of the multiplication by stem cuttings was studied for Sumac, the high ethnobotanical shrub value and for Cotinus, the endangered shrub, to give more insight into their propagation technique. Between January-July 2014, using complete randomized block design (C.R.B.D) in four replicates, we evaluated the effectiveness of applying four different Indole-3-Butyric Acid (IBA) concentration to two stems cutting diameters in producing C. coggygria and R. coriaria. However, the former species due to the poor survival percentage (lower 5%) excluded from the analysis. Optimum results of C. coggygria were obtained with IBA 20000 mg.l -1 and cutting diameter more than 1 cm. (rooting % 60, number of roots 17.33, number of branches 3.75 and the number of leaves 19.33 while nonsignificant increase was recorded in root length. 16.33 cm.). The results indicated that Cotinus is relatively easy to propagate by stem cutting in comparing with Sumac with rootability increases significantly with increasing of IBA concentration and stem cutting diameter. Further studies are needed for more reasonable rooting results to meet the large quantity demand of elite seedling material that could be later used to restore the natural populations of C. coggygria and R. coriaria.
Barbuti, R., Mautner, S., Carnevale, G., Milazzo, P., Rama, A and Sturmbauer, C. (2012). Population dynamics with a mixed type of sexual and asexual reproduction in a fluctuating environment. BMC Evol. Biol. 12(1):49; DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-12-49.
Burgess, D., Hendrickson, O., and Roy, L. (1990). The importance of initial cutting size for improving the growth performance of Salix alba L. Scand. J. Forest. Res. 5, 215–224.
Das, P; Basak, U and Das, A. (1997). Metabolic changes during rooting in pre-girdled stem cuttings and air-layers of Heritiera. Bot Bull Acad Sin .38:91–95.
Deepak, K.; Suneetha, G. and Surekha, Ch. (2015). A simple and effective method for vegetative propagation of an endangered medicinal plant Salacia oblonga Wall. J. Nat. Med. 70:115-119; DOI 10.1007/ s11418-015-0932-6.
Dirr, M.A. (1990). Manual of woody landscape plants: their identification, ornamental characteristics, culture, propagation, and uses. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing Company. 1007 p
Doroudi, H; Akbarinia, M; Jalali, S and Khosroujerdi, E. (2008). Effects of cutting diameter and media on rooting and survival of Sumac cuttings (Rhus Coriaria. L.). Iran J Agric Res; 21(2):271-277.
Dunn, D.E. (1999). Timing and auxin concentration affects Cotinus coggygria ‘Royal Purple’ rooting. Comb. Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc. 49: 510–513.
Edwards, R.A. and Thomas, M.B. (1980). Observations on physical barriers to root formation in cuttings. Plant Prop. 26:6–8.
Fogaça, C. M., and Fett-Neto, A. G. (2005). Role of auxin and its modulators in the adventitious rooting of Eucalyptus species differing in recalcitrance. Plant Growth Regul. 45, 1–10.
Foster., S, Stelzer., H and McRae, J. (2000). Loblolly pine cutting morphological traits: effects on rooting and field performance. New For., 89, 291–306.
Hannerz, M; Almqvist, C and Ekberg, I. (1999). Rooting success of cuttings from young Picea abies in transition to flowering competent phase. Scand J For Res, 14(6):498–504.
Hartmann,T; Kester, E; Davies, F.T and Geneve, R.L. (2002). Plant Propagation Principles and Practices. 7 th Edition. Prentice Hall. New Jersey, pp. 367-374.
Husen, A. and Mishra, V.K. (2001). Effect of IBA and NAA on vegetative propagation of Vitex negundo L. through leafy stem cuttings from hedged shoots during rainy season. Ind. Perf., 45: 83-87.
Husen, A. and S. Khatoon. (2012). Role of anthraquinones as a marker of juvenility and maturity in response to adventitious rooting of Tectona grandis. Am. J. Plant Physiol., 7: 220-231.
Kaul, K. (2008). Variation in rooting behavior of stem cuttings in relation to their origin in Taxus wallichiana Zucc. New For. 36: 217-24.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/ s11056-008-9094-7.
Leakey, R and Mohammed, H. (1985). Effects of stem length on root initiation in sequential single-node cuttings of Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum. Hortic.Scie, 60,431–437.
Leakey, R.R.B. (2004). Physiology of vegetative reproduction. In: Encyclopaedia of Forest Sciences (Eds. J. Burley, J. Evans, and J.A Youngquist), 1655-1668, Academic Press, London, UK.
Leakey., R. (1983). Stockplant factors affecting root initiation in cuttings of Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum., an indigenous hardwood of West Africa. Hortic. Scie., 58,277–290.
Macdonald, B. (1986). Practical Woody Plant Propagation for Nursery Growers. Timber Press. Portland. Oregon.
Media, A. R. (2016) .Vegetative Propagation of Some Woody Species by Stem Cutting Using Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) and Rooting Media. Thesis. University of Duhok. Kurdistan region-Iraq.
Mohammadi, S., Kouhsari, S. M and Feshani, A. M. (2010). Antidiabetic properties of the ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits in rats. Daru. 18(4):270- 274.
Muhamed, H and Sarhan, N (2016). Effect of root cutting diameter, length and indolebutyric acid concentrations on the rooting ability and growth of (Rhus coriaria L.) Root cuttings. Agri. and Vet.Sciences 19, (1),Pp 257-266.
Newman, J. P. (2014). Container Nursery Production And Business Management Manual.p124., UCANR Publications.
Nokes., J. (1986). How to grow native plants of Texas and the Southwest. Texas Monthly Press, Inc., Austin.404 pp.
Ogle, G.; Hoag, J. and Scianna, J. ( 2000). User’s guide to description, propagation and establishment of native shrubs and trees for riparian areas in the Intermountain West. Tech. Notes Plant Materials 32. Boise, ID: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 22 p.
OuYang, F; Wang, J and Li, Y. (2015) Effects of cutting size and exogenous hormone treatment on rooting of shoot cuttings in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]. New For 46:91–105.
Özkaya, MT; Celik, M and Algan, G. (1998). Anatomy of Adventitious Root Formation in Stem Cuttings of the Easy-to-Root (GemlİK) and Hard-to-Root (Domat) Olive Cultivars. Progress in Botanical Research. pp 435-438
Pacholczak, A., Ilczuk, A., Jacygrad, E and Jagiełło-Kubiec E. (2013). Effect of IBA and biopreparations on rooting performance of Cotinus coggygria Scop. Acta Hortic., 990: 383-389.
Palanisamy, K and Kumar, P. (1997) Effect of position, size of cuttings and environmental factors on adventitious rooting in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss). For Ecol Manag, 98(3):277–280.
Porter, Y.V. (1963). The effect of cyclic lighting and growth regulators on the rooting of Rhus lancea cuttings. Thesis. University of Arizona.p:36. http://hdl.handle.net/10150/551657.
Saifuddin, M., Normaniza, O. & Rahman, M.M. (2013). Influence of different cutting positions and rooting hormones on root initiation and root-soil matrix of two tree species. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 15:427-434.
Shahbaz S. E. (2010). Trees and shrubs. A field quite to the trees and shrubs of Kurdistan region of Iraq. University of Duhok Publication, UoD Press. 602: 283-285p.
Shahbaz, S. E. (2012). Endangered plants of Kurdistan. Kurdish Academy, Hawler, Kurdistan.
SAS Institute Inc. (2001). SAS Online Doc, version 9.1.3. [Online document]. Available at: http:// support.sas.com/onlinedoc/913/docMainpage.jsp.
Tchoundjeu, Z and Leakey, R. (1996). Vegetative propagation of African mahogany: effects of auxin, node position, leaf area and cutting length. New For. 11(2):125–136.
Tipton; J.L. (1992). Requirements for seed germination of Mexican redbud, evergreen sumac, and mealy sage. Hortic Sci. 27(4): 313-316.
Tracz., T. (1983). In: Alexander., J and Koller G.(moderators). New plant forum. Combined Proc. Int j plant sci. Combined Proceedings, 33, 489 -490.
Tsankova, E.T; Dyulgerov, A.S and Milenkov, B.K. (1993). Chemical composition of the Bulgarian sumac oil. J Essent Oil Res. 5: 205–207
Vigl., F, and Rewald., B. (2014). Size matters? The diverging influence of cutting length on growth and allometry of two Salicaceae clones. Bio. Bioe., 60,130–136.
Wilson, J and Grange, R. (1983). Regeneration of sclerenchyma in wounded dicotyledon stems. Ann. Bot. 52, 295–303.Abstract/FREE Full Text Google Scholar.
Yong, kweon Y and Ki, sun K. (1996). Seasonal variation in rooting ability, plant hormones, carbohydrate, nitrogen, starch and soluble sugar contents in cuttings of white forsythia. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci 37(4):554-560.