Phytochemical Investigation and Antioxidant Effects of Different Solvent Extracts of Pterocephalus Nestorianus Nab. Growing in Kurdistan Region-Iraq

Main Article Content

Fuad O. Abdullah Faiq H.S. Hussain Lucia Cucca Giovanni Vidari

Abstract

The medicinal plants have been used as a herbal tradition in Kurdistan. Most of the medicinal plants are still not investigated from a phytochemical and biological activity. Therefore, different solvent extraction carried out to study phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Pterocephalus nestorianus Nab. Through this research, it is reported for the first time that the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity on P.  nestorianus Nab. collected at Safeen Mountain in Erbil-Iraq, which was known as a Lawa in Kurdistan. It is used against inflammation and oral diseases. The phytochemical study of four extracts (Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and methanol 70%) of P. nestorianus flowers, leaves and roots revealed that it contains rich phytochemical composition. C4H8O2 and CH3OH extracts of P. nestorianus showed a high radical scavenging activity compared with trihydroxy benzoic acid as a standard. The flavonoid and phenolic presence showed strong correlation with the antioxidant activity. 


Article Details

References

Breyera A, Elstnerb M, Gillessenc T, Weiserd D. and Elstner E. (2007) Glutamate-induced cell death in neuronal HT22 cells is attenuated by extracts from St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). Phytomedicine, 14, 250-255
Brown, J. and Rice-Evans, C. (1998). Luteolin rich artichoke extract protects low density lipoprotein from oxidation in vitro. Free Radical Res., 29: 247-255.
Chen, C. Pearson M. and Gray, I. (1992). Effects of synthetic antioxidants (BHA, BHT and PG) on the mutagenicity of IQ-like compounds. Food Chem. 43, 177-183
Cook, N. and Samman, S. (1996) Flavonoids: Chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects and dietary sources. Nutritional Biochemistry, 7, 66-76.
Edenharder, R. and Tang, X. (1997). Inhibition of the mutagenicity of 2-nitrofluorene, 3-nitrofluoranthene and 1-nitropyrene by flavonoids, coumarins, quinones and other phenolic compounds. Food Chem. Toxicol, 35: 357-372.
Ghahreman, A. (1995). Flora of Iran. Research institute of forest and rangelands. Tehran University Press, Tehran.
Harborne, J. (1973). Phytochemical Methods, 3rd Edn. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, pp: 135-203.
Kahkonen, M., Hopia, A., Vuorela, J., Rauha, J.P., Pihlaja, K., Kujala T. and Heinonen M. (1999). Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem., 47: 3954–3962.
Kahl, R. and Kappus, H. (1993). Toxicology of the synthetic antioxidants BHA and BHT in comparison with the natural antioxidant vitamin E. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch, 196: 329-338.
Kawther, A. (2007). Systematic Study of the Genus Pterocephalus Vaill EX Adans. (Dipsacaceae) in Kurdistan of Iraq. M.Sc. thesis, Salahaddin University-Erbil. Iraq.
Lahlou, M. (2004). Methods to study the phytochemistry and bioactivity of essential oils. Phytother.Res., 18: 435-445.
Malik, E. and Singh M. (1980). “Plant Enzymology and Hittoenzymology” (1st Edn). Kalyani Publishers: New Delhi; 286.
Nyarko, A. and Addy, M. (1990). Effects of aqueous extract of Adenia cissampeloides on blood pressure and serum analyte of hypertensive patients. Phytother. Res. 4: 25-28.
Okwu, D. (2001). Evaluation of chemical composition of medicinal plants belonging to Euphorbiaceae. Pak. Vet. J., 14: 160-162.
Olaleye, M. (2007). Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa. J. Med. Plant Res. 1: 9–13.
Otto, S. (2008). Natural product isolation. Nat. Prod. Rep., 25: 517–554.
Peixoto S., Silva C., Nascimento J., Monteiro J., Albuquerque U. and Amorim E. (2008). Validação de metodologia espectrofotométrica para quantificação dos flavonóides de Bauhinia cheilantha (Bongard) Steudel. Braz J Pharm Sci., 44: 683-689.
Petr D., Marian H., David V., Alica H., Miroslav K., David B., Lenka Markova, Marian H., Milan U., David V. and Jan S. (2006). Pharmacological activities of natural triterpenoids and their therapeutic implications. Nat. Prod. Rep., 22, 487.
Raquel, F., Paul, B. and Richard M. (2007). Bacterial lipid composition and antimicrobial efficacy of cationic steroid compounds. Biochim. Biophys. Acta.,1768: 2500-2509.
Rasool, B. (2012) Medicinal Plants (Importance and Uses). Pharmaceut Anal Acta., 3: 2153-2435.
Rohman, A., Riyanto, S., Yuniarti, N., Saputra, W. and Utami, R. (2010). Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and total flavaonoid of extracts and fractions of red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam). Int. Food Res. J. 17: 97-106.
Raman N. (2006). Phytochemical techniques. 1st ed. New Delhi: New India Publishing Agency, 19-24.
Sabrin, R. and Gamal A. (2015). Cucumin S, a new phenylethyl chromone from Cucumis melo var. Reticulatus seeds, Braz. J. Pharmacog., 20: 462-464.
Sandhar, H., Kumar, B., Prasher, S., Tiwari, P., Salham M. and Sharma, P. (2011). A review of phytochemistry and pharmacology of flavonoids. Int. Pharmaceutica Sciencia, 1: 25-41.
Shahbaz, S. (2010). Trees and shrubs, a field guide to the trees and shrubs of Kurdistan region of Iraq.Duhok University Press, Duhok, Iraq.
Sofowora, A. (1993). Medicinal Plants and Traditional. Medicine in Afric. John Wiley and son Ltd., 150-153.
Solomon, C., Arukwe, U. and Onuoha, I. (2013). Preliminary phytochemical screening of different solvent extracts of stem bark and roots of Dennetia tripetala G. Baker. Asian J. Pant sci. and Rec., 3: 10-13.
Tiwari, P., kumar, B., Kaur, M., Kaur, G. and Kaur H. (2011). Phytochemical screening and extraction: A review. Int. Pharmaceutical sciencia. 1: 98-106.
Trease, G. and Evans W. (1989). Pharmacognosy. 11th Edn. Brailliar Tiridel and Macmillian Publishers, London.
Vahedi H., Nasrabadi M., Lari J. and Halimi M. (2011). Volatile constituents and antimicrobial activities of Pterocephalus canus. J. of Med. Plants Res., 5: 5646-564.