Fungal Contamination of Airconditioner Units in Five Hospitals of Erbil Province- Kurdistan Region /Iraq

  • Salah M. Al-Bader Knowledge University
  • Layla Q. Ismael Knowledge University
  • Asaad A. Ahmood Knowledge University
Keywords: fungi, air-conditioner, hospital, asthma, allergy


During April 2018, 75samples were collected from five hospitals in Erbil city. Samples were taken by sterile cotton swabs from the air dispenser window  of air conditioner units  (ACU) . They were cultured directly on Sabouraud's dextrose agar incubated at 25oC ±2. The samples were collected from five departments  in each hospital include out-patient ward (OP),in-patient ward (IP), emergency room (ER), intensive care unit(ICU), and operation theater (OT). A total of (410) fungal colonies were counted, they belong to13 genera include ten  hyphomycetes  and only one of zygomycetes ,basidiomycetes , and hemiascomycetes. Penicillium  represented in the highest  total occurrence (40%) followed by Aspergillus(38.66%) and Alternaria  (21.33%). The total frequency showed that Candidawas the highest (30%) followed by Penicillium(27.56%) and Aspergillus(13.17%). The highest density of filamentous fungi (no. of colony/sample) was detected in OP=16.75, and the lowest in OT=1.5. The diversity of isolates  showed that ( 9) genera were recorded from ER(60%)  and only one in OP (6%). All recorded genera in current study were regarded as indoor air pollutants. The predominant genera  Alternaria, Aspergillus, Penicillium ,Cladosporiumand Candida are  well-known allergens and may cause  several pulmonary disorders  as well as fetal infections in particular cases.

Author Biographies

Salah M. Al-Bader, Knowledge University

Department of Pathological Analysis, College of Science-Knowledge University, Erbil-Kurdistan Region/Iraq - (

Layla Q. Ismael, Knowledge University

Department of Pathological Analysis, College of Science-Knowledge University, Erbil-Kurdistan Region/Iraq - (

Asaad A. Ahmood, Knowledge University

Department of Pathological Analysis, College of Science-Knowledge University, Erbil-Kurdistan Region/Iraq - (


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How to Cite
Al-Bader, S., Ismael, L., & Ahmood, A. (2018). Fungal Contamination of Airconditioner Units in Five Hospitals of Erbil Province- Kurdistan Region /Iraq. Science Journal of University of Zakho, 6(4), 146-149.
Science Journal of University of Zakho