Impact of Nuts Consumption On Antioxidant Status and Pro-Oxidant Parameters in Healthy Human Volunteers

  • Omar A.M. Al-Habib University of Zakho
  • Suad Y. AL-Kass University of Duhok
  • Kajeen H. Jasim University of Zakho
Keywords: Anti-oxidants, Pro-oxidants, Human volunteers, Almond, Pistachio


The aim of the current research was to study the effect of consumption of a mixture of almond and pistachio on antioxidants and pro-oxidants levels in healthy human volunteers.  This dietary intervention study was carried out during the period from February to March, 2013 on a total of 48 apparently healthy males students from Military Academy / Zakho, Kurdistan Region- Iraq. Blood samples were withdrawn from all volunteer who were living in a controlled environment and analyzed for the determination of serum antioxidants, pro-oxidants. Parameters were obtained at baseline, 3 and 6 weeks after daily consumption of 50 gm. of a mixture of almond and pistachio.

The results of the current study demonstrated that daily consumption of 50 g of   almond and pistachio mixture for 3-6 weeks, significantly increased (P<0.05-0.005) the levels of total antioxidant, Ceruloplasmin, Superoxide dismutase and Glutathione reductase. On the other hand, the levels of the pro-oxidants Malonaldehyde and Peroxy- nitrite were significantly decreased (P<0.005) after 6 weeks of nuts consumption compared to the control. From this dietary intervention trial, it can be concluded that almonds and pistachio mixture improved anti-oxidants and pro-oxidants status compared with those of the healthy volunteers.

Author Biographies

Omar A.M. Al-Habib, University of Zakho

Dept. of  Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zakho, Kurdistan Region-Iraq

Suad Y. AL-Kass, University of Duhok

Dept. Biochemistry, School of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region-Iraq

Kajeen H. Jasim, University of Zakho

Dept. of  Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zakho, Kurdistan Region-Iraq


Baer D,Gebauer S, Novotny J. (2012): Measured energy value of pistachios in the human diet. Br J Nutr, 107(1): 120-125.
Canales A, Benedi J, Nus M, Librelotto J, Sanchez-Montero J, Sanchez-Muniz F. (2007): Effect of walnut-enriched restructured meat in the antioxidant status of overweight/obese senior subjects with at least one extra CHD-risk factor. J Am Coll Nutr., 26: 225–232.
Carter S, Hofer T, Seo Y, Leeiwenburgh C. (2007): Molecular mechanisms of life and health-span extension: Role of calorie restriction and exercise intervention. Nutr. Metab, 32: 954-966.
Casas-Agustench P, López-Uriarte P , Ros E, Bulló M , Salas-Salvadó J. (2011b): Nuts, hypertension and endothelial function. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 21, Supplement 1: 21-33.
Chauhan A, Chauhan V, Brown T, Cohen I. (2004): Oxidative stress in autism: Increased lipid peroxidation and reduced serum levels of ceruloplasmin and transferrin - the antioxidant proteins. Life Sciences, 75(21): 2539-2549.
Chiavaroli L.( 2010): Oxidative Stress and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Associated with Low- and High-Monounsaturated Fat Portfolio Diets. University of Toronto, Toronto.
Christen S, Hagen T, Shigenaga K, Ames B . (1997): Chronic Infection and Inflammation Lead to Mutation and Cancer. eds. Parsonnet, J.&Horning, S. (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford), in press.
Couillard C, Pomerleau S, Ruel G , Archer R, Bergeron J, Couture P, Lamarche B, Bergeron N (2006): Associations between hypertriglyceridemia, dietary fat intake, oxidative stress, and endothelial activation in men. Nutrition 22(6): 600-608.
Griel AE, Kris-Etherton PM(2006). Tree nuts and the lipid profile: a review of clinical studies. Br J Nutr;96:68S–78S.
Halliwell B. (2007): Oxidative stress and cancer: have we moved forward? . Biochem J 401: 1–11.
Huang D, Ou B, Prior L.(2005): The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J Agric Food Chem, 23;53(6): 1841-1856.
Jenkins D, Kendall C, Marchie A. (2006): Almonds decrease postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative damage in healthy individuals. J Nutr 136(12): 2987–2992.
Jenkins D, Kendall C, Marchie A. (2008): Almonds reduce biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in older hyperlipidemic subjects. J Nutr, 138: 908–913
Kocyigit A, Koylu A , Keles H. (2006): Effects of pistachio nuts consumption on plasma lipid profile and oxidative status in healthy volunteers. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 16(3): 202-209.
Kumari S. (2011): Free Radicals and Antioxidants: Human and Food System. Advances in Applied Science Research, 2(1): 129-135.
Lee M, Jung C, Hwang J, Shin M, Yu J, Lee W, Park J. (2012): Association between serum ceruloplasmin levels and arterial stiffness in Korean men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Technol Ther. , 14(12): 1091-1097.
López-Uriarte P, Nogués R, Saez G, Bulló M, Romeu M, Masana L, Tormos C, Casas-Agustench P, Salas-Salvadó J.(2010): Effect of nut consumption on oxidative stress and the endothelial function in metabolic syndrome. Clinical Nutrition, 29(3): 373-380.
McBride L. (2011): Almond Consumption And Weight Loss In Obese And Overweight Adults. Ph. D. Thesis. ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY
Megan K, Marijka B, Hassan O, Paul P, Danielle R, Robards K. (2009): Zero effect of multiple dosage of olive leaf supplements on urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress in healthy humans. Nutrition Bytes, 25: 270–280.
Naito Y, Lee M, Kato Y, Nagai R, Yonei Y. (2010): Oxidative Stress Markers. Anti-Aging Medicine, 7(5): 36-44.
Ravindra P , Shashwat S, Suman K. (2004): Free Radicals and Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Relevance of Dietary Antioxidants. JIACM, 5(3): 218-225.
Richard M, Kris-Etherton P, Gary D. , Foster.(2008): Impact of Peanuts and Tree Nuts on Body Weight and Healthy Weight Loss in Adults. The Journal of Nutrition, 138: 1741S– 1745S,.
Salas-Salvadó J , Martinez-González M , Bulló M, Ros E. (2011): The role of diet in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 21, Supplement 2: 32-48.
Sari I, Baltaci Y, Bagci C, Davutoglu V, Erel O, Celik H, Ozer O, Aksoy N., Aksoy M. (2010): Effect of pistachio diet on lipid parameters, endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidative status: A prospective study. Nutrition, 26(4): 399-404.
Shimizu k, Ogawa F , Muroi E, Hara T, Komura K , S.-J. Bae and S. Sato.(2007): Increased serum levels of nitrotyrosine, a marker for peroxynitrite production, in systemic sclerosis. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 25: p. 281-286.
Soliman G. (2012): Effect of nuts (pistachio or almonds) consumption on lipid profile of hyperchlolesterolemic rats. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 5(4): 47-53.
Srinath S. (2003): Effects of Walnuts on Serum Cholesterol Levels in People with Normo- or Hyperlipidemia. Nutrition Bytes, 9(2).
Teresinha A, Bruno A, Antonia C, Juliana D, Jenifer S, Marc R, Ferraz A. (2011): Antioxidant properties and chemical composition of technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (tCNSL). Food Chemistry, 126: 1044–1048.
Tomaino A, Martorana M, Arcoraci T, Monteleone D, Giovinazzo C, Saija A.( 2010): Antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) seeds and skins. Biochimie, 92(9): 1115-1122.
Torabian S, Haddad E, Rajaram S, Banta J, Sabate J. (2009): Effect of nut consumption on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation. . J Hum Nutr Diet 22: 64-71.
Tsantili E, Konstantinidis K, Christopoulos M,Roussos B.(2011): Total phenolics and flavonoids and total antioxidant capacity in pistachio (Pistachia vera L.) nuts in relation to cultivars and storage conditions. Scientia Horticulturae, 129(4): 694-701.
Ulku K, Tugba R, Cemil C, Meryem I, Celik T, Karabulut A. (2009): Serum Malondialdehyde, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in patients infected with Entamoeba coli. International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 1(5): 235-237.
Vadivel V, Kunyanga C, Biesalski H.(2012): Health benefits of nut consumption with special reference to body weight control. Nutrition, 28(11–12): 1089-1097.
Wang X, Li Z, Liu Y, Lv X, Yang W. (2012): Effects of pistachios on body weight in Chinese subjects with metabolic syndrome. Nutrition Journal, 11(20): 1-6.
Wang P, Zweier J. (1996): Measurement of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite generation in the postischemic heart. Evidence for peroxynitrite-mediated reperfusion injury. J Biol Chem 271: 29223–29230
How to Cite
Al-Habib, O., AL-Kass, S., & Jasim, K. (2016). Impact of Nuts Consumption On Antioxidant Status and Pro-Oxidant Parameters in Healthy Human Volunteers. Science Journal of University of Zakho, 4(1), 9-17. Retrieved from
Science Journal of University of Zakho