Impact of Nuts Consumption on Blood Pressure, Glycemic Status, Lipid Profile and Total Protein in Healthy Human Volunteers
To investigate the advantage of consumption of a mixture of almond and pistachio on blood pressure, lipid profile, sugar and protein levels in healthy volunteers.
Subjects and Methods:This dietary intervention study was carried out during the period from February to March 2013. A total of 48 apparently healthy males students from Military Academy / Zakho, Kurdistan Region of Iraq participated in this study. All the students were living in a controlled environment. Blood samples were taken and analyzed for the determination of serum glucose, lipid profile, total protein, albumin and globulin. Parameters were obtained at baseline, 3 and 6 weeks after daily consumption of 50gm of almond and pistachio mixture.
Results: The results of the current study demonstrated that daily consumption of 50 gs of almond and
pistachio mixture for 3-6 weeks significantly ( P<0.05 – 0.001) decreased the diastolic blood pressure and
the level of blood glucose , whereas body mass index (BMI) was not influenced at all. Serum total protein,
albumin and globulin levels were significantly increased (P<0.05-0.005). Finally, Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-ch), very
low density lipoprotein cholesterol ( VLDL-ch), TC/HDL and LDL/HDL were significantly
decreased (P<0.05-0.005) after 6 weeks of nuts consumption, where as high density lipoprotein-
cholesterol, was significantly increased (P<0.01).
Conclusion: This dietary intervention trial, demonstrated that almonds and pistachio mixture improved blood
glucose , total protein, and lipid profile to much better levels than that obtained previously using each
one separately in healthy volunteers.
Baer D,Gebauer S, Novotny J. (2012): Measured energy value of pistachios in the human diet. Br J Nutr, 107(1): 120-125.
Casas-Agustench P , López-Uriarte P, Bulló M , Ros E, Cabré-Vila J, Salas- Salvadó J (2011a): Effects of one serving of mixed nuts on serum lipids, insulin resistance and inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 21(2): 126-135.
Casas-Agustench P, López-Uriarte P , Ros E, Bulló M , Salas-Salvadó J. (2011b): Nuts, hypertension and endothelial function. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 21, Supplement 1: 21-33.
Chiavaroli L.( 2010): Oxidative Stress and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Associated with Low- and High-Monounsaturated Fat Portfolio Diets. University of Toronto, Toronto.
Cohen E, Johnston S, (2011): Almond ingestion at mealtime reduces postprandial glycemia and chronic ingestion reduces hemoglobin A1c in individuals with well- controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism, 60(9): 1312-1317.
Cyril W, Amin E, Jennifer T, Korbua S. (2010): Health benefits of nuts in prevention and management of diabetes. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 19(1): 110-116.
Fitschen, P. (2010): Cardiovascular Effects of Black Versus English Walnut Consumption. Uuiversity of Wisconsin-la Crosse.
Griel AE, Kris-Etherton PM. (2006). Tree nuts and the lipid profile: a review of clinical studies. Br J Nutr;96:68S–78S.
Jaceldo-Siegl K, Sabaté J, Batech M, Fraser E. (2011): Influence of body mass index and serum lipids on the cholesterol-lowering effects of almonds in free-living individuals. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 21, Supplement 1: S7-S13.
Karen E, Isidore K, Kurtz I.. (1999) :Effect of Pistachio Nuts on Serum Lipid Levels in Patients with Moderate Hypercholesterolemia. J Am Coll Nutr 18 (3): 229-232.
Kendall C, Esfahani A, Josse R, Augustin L, Vidgen E, Jenkins D. (2011): The glycemic effect of nut-enriched meals in healthy and diabetic subjects. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 21, Suppl. 1: 34-39.
Kleopatra A, Katsilambros N. (2011): Nuts: Anti-atherogenic food? European Journal of Internal Medicine, 22: 141–146.
Kris-Etherton P, Karmally W, Ramakrishnan R. (2008): The role of tree nuts and peanuts in the prevention of coronary heart disease: multiple potential mechanisms. J Nutr 138(9): 1746–1751.
López-Uriarte P, Nogués R, Saez G, Bulló M, Romeu M, Masana L, Tormos C, Casas-Agustench P, Salas-Salvadó J.(2010): Effect of nut consumption on oxidative stress and the endothelial function in metabolic syndrome. Clinical Nutrition, 29(3): 373-380.
Martínez-González M, Bes-Rastrollo M.(2011): Nut consumption, weight gain and obesity: Epidemiological evidence. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 21, Supplement 1: S40-S45.
Mattes RD, Kris-Etherton PM, Foster GD(2008). Impact of peanuts and tree nuts on body weight and healthy weight loss in adults. J Nutr;138:1741-5
McBride L. (2011): Almond Consumption And Weight Loss In Obese And Overweight Adults. ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY.
Richard C, Couture P, Desroches S, Charest A, Lamarche B. (2011): Effect of the Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on cardiovascular risk factors in men with the metabolic syndrome. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, 21: 628-635.
Sari I, Baltaci Y, Bagci C, Davutoglu V, Erel O, Celik H, Ozer O, Aksoy N., Aksoy M. (2010): Effect of pistachio diet on lipid parameters, endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidative status: A prospective study. Nutrition, 26(4): 399- 404.
Shih Y, Chen P, Wu C, Tseng Y, Wu Y , Lo Y. (2010): Arecoline, a major alkaloid of the areca nut, causes neurotoxicity through enhancement of oxidative stress and suppression of the antioxidant protective system. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 49(10): 1471-1479.
Srinath S. (2003): Effects of Walnuts on Serum Cholesterol Levels in People with Normo- or Hyperlipidemia. Nutrition Bytes, 9(2).
Salas-Salvadó J , Martinez-González M , Bulló M, Ros E. (2011): The role of diet in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 21, Supplement 2: 32-48.
Salas-Salvadó J, Casas-Agustench P, Murphy M, Bulló, M. (2008): The effect of nuts on inflammation. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 17 (S1): 333-336.
Soliman G. (2012): Effect of nuts (pistachio or almonds) consumption on lipid profile of hyperchlolesterolemic rats. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 5(4): 47-53.
Tsantili E, Konstantinidis K, Christopoulos M,Roussos B.(2011): Total phenolics and flavonoids and total antioxidant capacity in pistachio (Pistachia vera L.) nuts in relation to cultivars and storage conditions. Scientia Horticulturae, 129(4): 694- 701.
Vadivel V, Kunyanga C, Biesalski H.(2012): Health benefits of nut consumption with special reference to body weight control. Nutrition, 28(11–12): 1089-1097.
Wang X, Li Z, Liu Y, Lv X, Yang W. (2012): Effects of pistachios on body weight in Chinese subjects with metabolic syndrome. Nutrition Journal, 11(20): 1-6.
Yang J, Liu R, Halim L.( 2009): Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common edible nut seeds. LWT - Food Science and Technology,42(1):1-8.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work, with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online.