• rayan Basheer M. ameen Physics Department, College of Science, The University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region of Iraq




Biomechanics, Height, Gender, Cadence, Injury prevention, Stress on joints, Kinetics


Running cadence is crucial in running biomechanics and physiology, impacting performance and injury risk. The relationship between running cadence, height, weight, and gender is explored using data from 29 participants (14 males, 15 females) with varying attributes. Taller individuals tend to have a lower cadence due to longer stride length, while fewer steps are required by heavier individuals at the same pace. A higher cadence is observed in males, possibly due to differences in leg length and muscle fiber composition, although considerable variability exists among individuals of both genders.

Linear regression analysis revealed robust models for both genders, with negative correlations between cadence and height, indicating that increased cadence correlates with decreased height for males and females. Females typically have higher BMI than males, with BMI variability in the population. Weight influences running cadence by affecting ground force. Heavier individuals may take fewer steps, but risk increased strain on joints and muscles, raising injury risk.

Furthermore, the connection between running cadence and injury risk is investigated. It is found that adjusting cadence significantly reduces stress on weight-bearing joints and prevents common overuse running injuries. It is demonstrated by several reputable studies in the field that even minor cadence increases greatly reduce stress on knee and hip joints during running, making it a commendable method for injury prevention.

In conclusion, while height and weight impact running cadence, each person's cadence is unique and influenced by various factors beyond gender alone. Understanding the relationship between running cadence and its impact on injury prevention is crucial for runners seeking to improve performance and avoid injuries.


Marsh AP, Martin PE. The relationship between cadence and lower extremity EMG in cyclists and noncyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995 Feb;27(2):217-25. PMID: 7723645.

Delecluse, C., Ponnet, H., & Diels, R. (1998). “Stride characteristics related to running velocity in maximal sprint running.” [w:] Riehle HJ, Vieten MM. (red) Proceedings II of XVI International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports, ISBS, 146-148.

Gajer, B., Thepaut-Mathieu, C. & Lehenaff, D. (1999). “Evolution of stride and amplitude during course of the 100m event in athletics.” New Studies in Athletics, 3, 43-50.

van Gent RN, Siem D, van Middelkoop M, van Os AG, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Koes BW. Incidence and determinants of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2007 Aug;41(8):469-80; discussion 480.

Step frequency patterns of elite ultramarathon runners during a 100-km road race Geoffrey T. Burns, Jessica M. Zendler, and Ronald F. Zernicke Journal of Applied Physiology 2019 126:2, 462-468.

Jocelyn F. Hafer, Allison M. Brown, Polly deMille, Howard J. Hillstrom & Carol Ewing Garber (2015) The effect of a cadence retraining protocol on running biomechanics and efficiency: a pilot study, Journal of Sports Sciences, 33:7, 724-731.

Davis IS, Bowser BJ, Mullineaux DR. Greater vertical impact loading in female runners with medically diagnosed injuries: a prospective investigation. Br J Sports Med. 2016 Jul;50(14):887-92.

Hafer JF, Brown AM, deMille P, Hillstrom HJ, Garber CE. The effect of a cadence retraining protocol on running biomechanics and efficiency: a pilot study. J Sports Sci. 2015;33(7):724-31. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2014.962573. Epub 2014 Nov 4. PMID: 25369525.

Chen S, Wang Y, Bing F, Zhang M. Effects of Running Speeds and Exhaustion on Iliotibial Band Strain during Running. Bioengineering (Basel). 2023 Mar 26;10(4):417. doi: 10.3390/bioengineering10040417. PMID: 37106604; PMCID: PMC10136138.

Musgjerd T, Anason J, Rutherford D, Kernozek TW. Effect of Increasing Running Cadence on Peak Impact Force in an Outdoor Environment. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2021 Aug 1;16(4):1076-1083. doi: 10.26603/001c.25166. PMID: 34386286; PMCID: PMC8329321.

Venable EN, Seynaeve LA, Beale ST, Gamez A Jr, Domingo A, Rosenthal MD, Rauh MJ. Relationships between Running Biomechanics, Hip Muscle Strength, and Running-Related Injury in Female Collegiate Cross-country Runners. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2022 Oct 1;17(6):1053-1062.

Kobayashi, T., Koh, M.W.P., Hu, M. et al. Effects of step frequency during running on the magnitude and symmetry of ground reaction forces in individuals with a transfemoral amputation. J Neuro Engineering Rehabil 19, 33 (2022).

Rylands, Lee, and Simon J. Roberts. "Relationship between starting and finishing position in World Cup BMX racing." International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport 14.1 (2014): 14-23.

Wang J, Luo Z, Dai B, Fu W. Effects of 12-week cadence retraining on impact peak, load rates and lower extremity biomechanics in running. PeerJ. 2020 Aug 24;8:e9813.

Kristin L. Popp, Jereme Outerleys, Sarah Gehman, Margaret Garrahan, Sara Rudolph, Elizabeth Loranger, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Adam S. Tenforde, Mary L. Bouxsein, Irene S. Davis, Impact loading in female runners with single and multiple bone stress injuries during fresh and exerted conditions, Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 12, Issue 3, 2023, Pages 406-413.

Kulmala J-P, Avela J, Pasanen K, Parkkari J. Forefoot strikers exhibit lower running-induced knee loading than rearfoot strikers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(12):2306-2313.

Vannatta CN, Kernozek TW. Patellofemoral joint stress during running with alterations in foot strike pattern. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(5):1001-1008.

Lieberman DE, Warrener AG, Wang J, Castillo ER. Effects of stride frequency and foot position at landing on braking force, hip torque, impact peak force and the metabolic cost of running in humans. J Exp Biol. 2015;218(Pt 21):3406-3414.

Mestelle Z, Kernozek T, Adkins KS, Miller J, Gheidi N. EFFECT OF HEEL LIFTS ON PATELLOFEMORAL JOINT STRESS DURING RUNNING. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2017 Oct;12(5):711-717.

Warden SJ, Edwards WB, Willy RW. Preventing Bone Stress Injuries in Runners with Optimal Workload. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2021 Jun;19(3):298-307.

Marcelo P. Castro, Maria Cristina Figueiredo, Sofia Abreu, Helena Sousa, Leandro Machado, Rubim Santos, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, The influence of gait cadence on the ground reaction forces and plantar pressures during load carriage of young adults, Applied Ergonomics, Volume 49, 2015, Pages 41-46.

Inai, T., Takabayashi, T., Edama, M., & Kubo, M. (2021). Effects of step length and cadence on hip moment impulse in the frontal plane during the stance phase. PeerJ, 9.




How to Cite

Basheer M. ameen, rayan. (2024). QUANTIFYING THE IMPACT OF RUNNING CADENCE ON BIOMECHANICS, PERFORMANCE, AND INJURY RISK: A PHYSICS-BASED ANALYSIS. Science Journal of University of Zakho, 12(2), 237–243. https://doi.org/10.25271/sjuoz.2024.12.2.1233



Science Journal of University of Zakho