Response of Pear Fruit Cv. Butirra Precoce Morettini to Kmno4, Bread Yeast at Two Storage Periods.

  • Sarfaraze F. A. AL-Bamarny University of Duhok
  • Shukri H. S. Bani University of Duhok
  • Abulrahman A. Mohamad University of Duhok
Keywords: Pear Fruit, Pyrus communis L, Bread yeast, Storage period


This study was carried out on fruits of five years old pear trees (Pyrus communis L) in the central laboratory in Agricultural Faculty/ Duhok University / Iraqi Kurdistan Region, during growing season 2012, to investigate the effect of potassium permanganates (KMnO4), bread yeast and storage periods on fruit storage behavior of Butirra Precoce Morettini pear fruit. The results revealed that the fruit treated with 10 g KMnO4 / bag increased significantly the firmness but the weight loss percent was significantly decreased. Also fruit dipped in 4% bread yeast caused a significant increase in weight loss percent, juice volume and juice percent. Whereas TSS, firmness, juice percent, total sugars and total acidity were decreased as storage prolonged from 56 days to 127 days, except weight loss percent which increased significantly during the same storage periods. The effect of the interaction between KMnO4 and bread yeast levels with storage periods was significant. The interaction between 20g KMnO4 /bag and 56 days storage resulted in the highest fruit firmness, but the best interaction in decreasing weight loss was 10g KMnO4 /bag with 56 days storage. On the other hand, the interaction between 20g KMnO4 /bag with 127 days storage gave the lowest acidity. Concerning the increasing of ascorbic acid in fruits, the best interaction was 20g KMnO4 /bag with 127 days storage.

Author Biographies

Sarfaraze F. A. AL-Bamarny, University of Duhok

Dept. of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Duhok, Kurdistan region – Iraq.

Shukri H. S. Bani, University of Duhok

Dept. of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Duhok, Kurdistan region – Iraq.

Abulrahman A. Mohamad, University of Duhok

Dept. of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Duhok, Kurdistan region – Iraq.


Al-Ani, A-I. M., (1985). Physiology of horticultural crops after harvesting the first part. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Baghdad University.

AL- Bamarny, S. F. A.(2008). Effect of treatments with some chemical compounds on storage characteristics of Golden Delicious and Red Delicious apple. Ph.D. Thesis, Hort. And Landscape Design / Fruit / coll. Agric. & Forestry/ Mosul University.

Albeles, F. B.; P.W. Morgan and M.E. Saltveit (1992). Ethylene in plant bio. Academic: San Diego, CA, 182-185.

A. O. A. C. (1995). Official Method of Analysis 16th Ed. A. O. A. C. International Gaithersburg, M. O.

Attia, N. A. (1986). Effect of some growth regulators on fruit quality of Anna apples. Ms.C. Thesis, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

Ayoub, A. J.; G. Margarat; Driver and Irwin and A.Taub (1995). Use of ethylene absorbers in extending shelf life. CJS ethylene filters. Handbook of Toxic Properties of Monomers and Additives.

Barreiro, M. G.; V. Quartin ; A. Paula and P.S. Campos (2003). Influence of postharvest calcium treatments on membrane lipids composition and quality of “Bravo de Esmolfe” apples. Biblioteca de ciencias, 12: 321-325.

Chander, V. B. (1991). Studies on ethylene management and storage of ackaged apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. Red Delicious.Ph. D. Thesis, India.

Elham, Z. A. E., M. F. M. Shahin, M. H. El-Sheikh and M. M. M. Abd-El-Migeed (2010). Effect of algae extract and yeast application on growth, nutritional status, yield and fruit quality of Keitte mango trees. Agric. & Bio. J. of North America. ISSN online: 2151-7525.

Ferguson, J. J.; W. T. Aving; L. H. Allen and Koch, K. E. (1987). Growth of Co2 Enriehed sour orange seedlings treated with gibberellic acid and cytokinins. Proc. Florida-State Hort. Soc. 38(2): 363-375.

Forsyth, F. R.; C. A. Eaves and H. J. Lighrfoot (1996). Storage quality of McIntosh apples as affected by removel of ethylene from the storage atmosphere. Can. J. plant. Sci., 49:567-572.

Harker, F. R. ; R. J. Redgwelll; I. C. Hallett and S. H. Murray (1997). Texture of fresh fruit. Horticultural Reviews, 20: 121-224.

Hashem, M.; Y. M. Omran and M. Nashwa Sallam (2008). Efficacy of yeasts in the management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in flame seedless grape vines and the consequent on the productivity of the vines. Biocontrol Science and Technology 18(4): 357-375.

Hayat, I.; T. Masud and H.A. Rathore (2003). Effect of coating and warpping materials on shelf life of apple (Malus domestica Borkh). Internet J. of Food Safety, (5) 24 – 34.

Idso, S. B; R. L. Garcia; B. A. Kimball and J. K. Hoober (1995). Effect of atmosphere CO2 enrichment and foliar methanol application on net photosynthesis of orange trees (Citrus aurantium) leaves. Amer. Botany 82(1): 26-30.

Joseph K. and P. Butler (2008). Smart Packaging Technologies for Fast Moving. SBN: 978-0-470-02802-5, 356 pages, April, 2008.

Magoffin, C. D. and R. C. Hoseney (1974). A review of fermentation. Baker”s Dig. 48(12): 22.

Martinez-Anoya, M. A., Pitarch, B., Bayarri, P. and Beneditode barber, C. (1990). Microflora of the sour doughs wheat flour bread interaction between yeast and lactic acid bacteria in wheat doughs and their effects on bread quality. Cereal Chem. 6: 85.

Moran, E. R. (2006). Maintaining fruit firmness of McIntosh and Cortland apples with ReTain® and SmartFreshSM. Fruit Notes, 71.

Obaid, H. (2005) Effect of some chemical compounds in the storage ability of the fruits of two varieties Golden Delicious and Starking Delicious apple. Damascus Univ. J. Agric. Sci., 21 ( 1 ): 109-126.

Potter, D.; T. Eriksson; R. C. Evans; S. Oh; J. E. E. Smedmark; D. R. Morgan; M. Kerr; K. R. Robertson; M. Arsenault; T. A. Dickinson; C. S. Campbell (2007). “Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae”. Plant Systematics and Evolution 266 (1–2):543. doi: 10.1007/ s00606-007-0539-9. [Referring to the subfamily by the name “Spiraeoideae”].

Radicati, L., I. Martino and G. Vergano (1995). Apple and Pear Cultivars of Piemonte (ITALY) in Pomological Descriptions of 18th and 19th Centuries. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 391:273-282.

SAS Institute, Inc (2002). Statistical Analysis System Ver. 9.0. SAS institute Inc., Cary, NC. USA.

Sayyari, M. and M. Rahemi (2003). Role of heat treatment, calcium chloride and potassium permanganate. J. Sci. Tech. Agr. Nature Res, 6 (4) : 67 – 77.

Siddiqui, S. and F. Bangerth (1996).The effect of calcium infiltration on structural changes in cell walls of stored apples. J. Hort. Sci., 71:703 – 708.

Stino, R.G.;. A. T. Mohsen; M. A. Maksoud; M.M.M. Abd elmigeed; A. M. Gomaa, and A. Y. Ibrahim (2009). Bio-organic fertilization and its impact on Apricot young trees in newly reclaimed soil. Amer-Eurasian J. Agric. and Environ. Sci., 6(1): 62-69.

Sugar, D., L. M. Benbow, K. A. Powers and S. R. Basile (2003). Effects of sequential calcium chloride, ziram and yeast orchard sprays on postharvest decay of pear. Plant Diseases / Vol. 87 No. 10.

Suriabananont, V. (1992). Fertilizer trails on mangoes (Mangifera indica) var. Nan Dok Mai in Thailand. Acta Hort. (321): 529-534.

Tartoura, E.A.A. (2001). Response of pea plants to yeast extract and two sources of N-fertilizers. J. Agric. Sci., Mansoura Univ., 26(12): 7887-7901.

Wills, R. B. H and M. A. Warton (2000). Anew rating scale for ethylene action on postharvest fruits and vegetables.Improving postharvest Technologies of Fruits, Vegetables and Ornamentals, IIR Confernce, Murcia: 43-47.

Wills, R. B. H and M. A. Warton (2004). Efficacy of potassium permanganate impregnated in to alumina beads to reduce atmospheric ethylene. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 129 (3):433 – 438.

Wills, R. B. and H. Wills (1995). Effect of ethylene on storage life of lettuce. J. Sci. Food Agr., 69: 197-201.and M. A.
How to Cite
AL-Bamarny, S., Bani, S., & Mohamad, A. (2015). Response of Pear Fruit Cv. Butirra Precoce Morettini to Kmno4, Bread Yeast at Two Storage Periods. Science Journal of University of Zakho, 3(2), 212-221. Retrieved from
Science Journal of University of Zakho