Antibacterial Bioactive Compound From The Fungus Drechslera Halodes (Drechsler) Subram. & Jain Isolated From Soil of Basrah, Iraq
The fungus Drechslera halodes was isolated from soil samples of Basrah, Iraq, and examined for its ability to produce antimicrobial bioactive compounds after being cultured in two types of liquid media for a production of secondary metabolites. The fungal culture filtrate and mycelia extracts were tested against two strains of bacteria E. coli and S. aureus using a disc diffusion method. The fungal filtrate exhibited a growth inhibition against both bacteria E. coli and S. aureus with inhibition zones of 25 mm and 30 mm diam., respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the purified compound was examined and revealed that 50 ug/ml was against E. coli and 25 ug/ml for S. aureus. Toxicity of the fungal extract using human blood indicating that no toxic effect was detected. The fungal extract revealed three separated compounds by using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Solubility, melting points and functional chemical groups were also determined. A bioactive compound was isolated, purified and identified by using Gas Chromatography (GC-mass) and Infra Red (IR). The bioactive compound is identified as 6-allyl-5,6-dihydro-5-hydroxypyran-2-one, with a molecular weight of 154 kd and the chemical formula is C8H10O3 which belongs to aromatic esterase group.
Anke, T. (1989). Basidiomycetes: A source for new bioactive secondary metabolites.
In: Bushell M.E. And U. Graef (eds). Bioactive compounds from microorganisms.
Progress in Industrial Microbiology. Elsevier, 27: 230.
Anke,T. (1997). Strobilurins . In: Anke T. (ed.). Fungal Biotechnology, Chapman and Hall,
Casals, J.B. (1979). Tablet sensitivity testing of pathogenic fungi . J. Clin . Pathol. 32: 719-722.
Davis, R. A.; Longden,J.; Avery ,V.M. and Healy,P.C.(2008) .The isolation, Structure
determination and cytotoxicity of the the new fungal metabolite, Trichodermamide C.
Bioorganic &Medicinal Letters 18: 2836-2839.
Ellis M. B. (1971). Demataceous hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycol Instit. Surey, UK.
Evidente, A.; Andolfi, A.; Vurro, M.; Zonno, M. C. and Motta, A. (2005). Drazepinone
A trisubstituted tetrahydronaphthofuroaze pinone with herbicidal activity produced
by Drechslera siccans. Phytochemistry. 66: 715-721.
Evidente, A.; Cimmino, A.;Vurro, M.; Frac-Chiolla, M. ; Charudattan , R. and Motta, A.
(2006). Ophiobolin E and 8-epi-Ophiobolin produced by Drechlera gigante, a potential
mycoherbicide of weed Grasses. Phytochemistry 67: 2281-2287.
Harborne, J. B. (1984). Phytochemical method. 2nd . ed Chapman and Hall , NY.
Kim, H.J. ; Kim ,J.C. ;Kim ,B.C. ;Kim ,H.G. and Cho, K.Y.(1999). Antibiotic and
phytotoxic activities of Ophiobolin from Helminthosporium species. Plant Pathol. J.
15: 14- 20.
Muhsin T. M. and Mohammad H. M. (2012). Preliminary screening of bioactive metabolites
from three species of Drechslera isolated from soil in Basrah, Iraq. J. Basrah Res.
NCCLS ( National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards); (2002). Methods for
dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests of bacteria that grow aerobically in
Approved standard M100-S12-Wayne.
Osterhage, C.;König,G.M.;Höller,U.; Wright, A.D.(2002).Rare sesquiterpenes from
the algicolous fungus Drechslera dematioidea. J. Nat. Prod.65,306-313.
Petit, P., Lucas, E.F., Abreu, L.M., Pfenning, L.H. and Takahashi, J.A. (2009).
Novel antimicrobial secondary metabolites from Penicillium sp. Isolated from
Brazilian Cerrado Soil. Mirob. Biotechnol. 12:1-9.
Schulz , B. ; Boyle, C.; Draeger, S. ; Römmert ,A.-K. and Krohn. (2002). Endophytic Fungi ; a
source of novel Biologically Active secondary metabolites, Mycol Res 106: 996-1004.
Shen, X., Krasnoff, S.B., Lu, S.W., Dunbar,C.D.,; Neal, J.B.,; Turgeon, G.; Olen,C.Y. ;
Gibson, D.M.; Hamann, M.T. (1999).Characterization of 6-epi-3-anhydroo-Phiobolin B from
Cochliobolus heterostrophes. J. Nat. Prod.62: 895-897.
Shihabudeen, M.S.; Priscilla, H.B.; Thirumurugan, B.K. (2010). Antimicrobial activity and
phytochemical analysis of selected Indian folk medicinal plants.International J Pharmacetical
Sciences and Research 10: 430-434
Shotwell, O.L. and Ellis, J.J. (1979). Helminthosporium, Drechslera and Bipolaris Toxins.
Northern Regional Research Laboratory , Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Peoria III, 61604.
Srivastava, M. B. and Sharma, N, (2011). Antimicrobial activities of basidiocarps of some Basidiomycetes strains against bacteria and fungi. J. Mycol. Plant Pathol. 41: 332-334.
Sterner, O. (1995). Toxic Terpenoids from Higher fungi and their possible role In: Chemical
Deffence Systems. Crypto. Bot. 16: 47-57.
Strobel ,G. and Daisy, B.(2003). Bioprospecting for microbial endophytes and their natural
products. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 67 : 491-502.
Sugawara, F.; Hallock, Y.F.; Bunkers, G.D.; Kenfield, D.S.; Strobel, G.; Yoshida, S. (1988).
Dihydropyrenophorin, a novel and selective phytotoxin produced by Drechslera avenae.
Plant Science 43: 1-5.
Sugawara, F, Strobel, G., Strange, R. N., Siedow, J. N., Duyne, G.D., Cladry, J.J. (2011).
Phytotoxins from the pathogenic fungi Drechslera maydis and Drechslera sorghicola. Proc.
Nat. Acad. Sci. 84: 3081-3085.
Xian-guo, H. and Ursula, M. (1994). Antifungal compound from Solanum nigrescens.
J. Enthopharm . 43: 173-177.
Zähner, H. ; Anke, H. and Anke, T. (1983) .Evolution of secondary pathways. In:Secondary metabolites and differentiation in fungi ( Bennett J.W. and Ciegler A.,eds) Marcel Dekker, New York, pp.153-171.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work, with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online.