Oxidant-Antioxidant Status and Some Related Parameters in Hypertension Diabetic (Type 1&2) Patients - in Thi-Qar /Iraq
Hyperglycemia is considered a major initiator of oxidative stress which lead to the formation of free radicals and consequently lipid peroxidation occurs that which lead to tissue damage and diabetes mellitus development. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the relationship between antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation end products (malondialdehyde; MDA) and some trace elements in the plasma of 30 type 1 DM patients and 30 type 2 DM patients and 40 hypertension DM patients (20 type1 and 20 type2) and 30 non hypertension DM patients (15 type1 and15 type2) and 40 non diabetic healthy control subjects.Plasma MDA, chromium and ceruloplasmin concentrations was measured by manual methods, whereas glucose, iron, copper, transferrin and albumin concentrations were analyzed spectrophotometrically by kits in all patients with DM as well as in the control subjects. The results of type1DM were compared with type2DM and hypertension-DM were compared with a non- hypertension DM and control group using One way ANOVA-test to compare parameters in different studied groups.The results show a significant elevation (P ≤ 0.05) in levels of glucose, MDA, iron, copper and ceruloplasmin of type 2- diabetic patients in comparison type 1-diabetic patients and healthy subjects, also, it has been found a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in chromium, transferrin and albumin levels in type 2- diabetic patients in comparison with type 1- diabetic patients and control group. Also the results show a significant elevation (P ≤ 0.05) in levels of glucose, MDA, chromium, iron, copper and ceruloplasmin of (type1 and type 2) hypertension- diabetic patients in comparison (type 1and type2) non hypertension-diabetic patients and healthy subjects, also, it has been found a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in transferrin and albumin levels (type1 and type 2) hypertension- diabetic patients in comparison (type1and type2) non hypertension-diabetic patients and healthy subjects.
Marshall, W. J., 2000. " clinical chemistry " , 4th ed. Mosby, Harcthist Publishers Limited, Spain, P.P 277-285 ;
Jakus ,V., 2000. "The role of free radicals, oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in diabetic vascular disease". 101: 541-51;
Oparil, S., Zaman, M.A., Calhoun, D.A., 2003. "Pathogenesis of hypertension". Ann. Intern. Med. 139 (9): 761–76;
Greiling, H., Gressner, A.M., Lehrbuch, D., Klinischen, 1995. Chemie und Pathobiochemie , 3rd , Stuttgart/ New York ;Schattauer Verlag;
Trinder, P., Ann. 1989. Clin Biochem. 6:24-33;
Fong, K.L. , McCay, P.B. , and Poyer, J.L. ; 1973. J. Biol. Chem. , 248: 7792 ;
Ceriotti, F. 1980. Clin. Chem. J., 26: 327;
Abe. A., et al. 1989. Clin. Chem . 35/4:552-554;
Short, L.F. , Murray, G.F., and Uptografft, W.R. ; 1984. Am. J. Surg., 148: 621 ;
Menden, C.E. , Boian, J.M. , Murthy, L. , and Petering, H.G. ; 1977. Anal Lett., 10: 197 ;
Webster, D., 1974. Clin Chem .Acta .53:109-115;
Tan, CE., Chew, LS., Chio, LF.; 2001. "Cardiovascular risk factors and LDL sub fraction profile in type 2diabetes mellitus subjects with good glycemic control". Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 51:107-14;
Annette, M., Chang and Jeffrey, B., 2003 "Aging and insulin secretion". AJP-Endocrinology and Metabolism;.
Jain, SK., McVie, R., Jackson, R., 1999 "Effect of Hyperketonemia on Plasma Lipid Peroxidation Levels in Diabetic Patients"; Diabetes Care . 22:1171-75;.
West, I.C., 2000."Radicals and oxidative stress in diabetes". Diabet Med. 17:171–180;
Dierckx, N., Horvath, G., Van, C., Vertommen, J., Van De Vliet ,J., 2003 "Oxidative stress status in patients with diabetes mellitus: relationship to diet". Eur J Clin Nutr . 57(8):999-1008;.
Kornberg, A. 2004, J. Biol. chem. 27:2055;.
Ekmekcioglu, C., Prohaska, C., Pomazal, K., Steffan, I., 2001 "Concentrations of seven trace elements in different hematological matrices in patients with type 2 diabetes as compared to healthy controls".79:205-219;.
Stupar, J., Vrtovec, M., Dolinsek, F., 2007 "Longitudinal hair chromium profiles of elderly subjects with normal glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus". Metabolism.56:94-104;.
Rajpathak, S., Rimm, E.B., Li, T., Morris, J.S., 2004."Lower toenail chromium in men with diabetes and cardiovascular disease compared with healthy men". Diabetes Care .27:2211-2216;
Liu, J., Zhu, Z. 2000, "Determination of trace elements Fe, Cr, Co and Ni in serum of middle-aged and aged people with slight and severe diabetes". 20:87-88;.
Rukgauer, M., Zeyfang, A. 2008;"Chromium determinations in blood cells: clinical relevance demonstrated in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2". Biol Trace Elem Res .86:193-202;.
Davies, P.D., Duncan, G., 2004 "Aqueous humthis glucose concentration in cataract patients and its effect on the lens"; Exp Eye Res .39:605-609;.
Merkel, P.A., Simonson, D,C., 2008 "Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in patients with thalassemia major treated by hypertransfusion". N Engl J Med. 318:809-814;.
Wilson, J.G., Lindquist, J.H., 2003 "Potential role of increased iron stores in diabetes". Am J Med Sci. 325:332-339;.
Ma, J., Stampfer, M.J . 2002, Clin. Chem.48:601-603;.
Andrews, N.C. 2009, "Disorders of iron metabolism"; J. Med.341:1986-1995;.
Kim, N.H., Oh, J.H., Cho, K.M., 2005 "Serum ferritin in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetic patients". 41:387-392;.
Giwercman, A., Carlsen, E., Keiding, N., 2003"Evidence for increasing incidence of abnormalities of the human testis".65-71 ;.
Johnson, M. A. & Hove, S. S; 2006" Development of anemia in copper-deficient rats fed high levels of dietary iron and sucrose"; J. Nutr. 116:1225-1238;.
Saari, J. T., 2002" Renal copper as an index of copper status in marginal deficiency ". Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 86:237-247;.
Gonzalez, A.S., Guerrero, D.B., 2006 "Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and the inflammation markers C-reactive protein and ferritin"; Eur J Clin Nutr. 60:802– 809;.
McCullen, M.A., Crawford, D.H., Hickman, P.E. 2002, "Screening for hemochromatosis". Clinica Chimica Acta.315:169–186;.
Zakin, M.M., Baron, B., Guillou, F. 2002, " Regulation of the tissue-specific expression of transferrin gene". 24:222-226;.
Georgieff, M.K., Berr, S.A. 2005, "Increased placental iron regulatory protein-1 expression in diabetic pregnancies complicated by fetal iron deficiency"; Placenta. 20:87-93;.
Jonnson, A., Wales, JK; 2006" Blood glycoprotein levels in diabetes mellitus"; Diabetlogia.12:245–250;.
Kingston, IB., Kingston, BL. 2007, "Chemical evidence that proteolytic cleavage causes the heterogeneity present in human ceruloplasmin preparation"; Proc Natl AcadSci USA .74:5377–5381;.
Korantzopoulos, P., Kolettis, T. 2003, "A trial fibrillation and electrical remodeling: the potential role of inflammation and oxidative stress".Med Sci Monit. 9(9):225-229;.
Wolff, S. P., Jiang, Z. Y. 2001, "Protein glycation and oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus and ageing". Free Rad. Biol. Med.10:339-352;.
Pacifici, R. E., Davies, K. J. 2001,"Protein, lipid and DNA repair systems in oxidative stress the free-radical theory of aging revisited". Gerontology .37:166-180;.
Vlassara, H., Brownle, M., Cerami, A. 2001;"Nonenzymatic glycosylation of peripheral nerve protein in diabetes mellitus". 78:5190-5192;.
Ceriello, A. 2007, "Hyperglycemia counterbalances the antihypertensive effect of glutathione in diabetic patients".Diabetes complications. 11(4),250–255;.
Ylä-Herttwala ,S., Palinski, W. ;1999," Rosenfeld ME. Evidence for the presence of oxidability in atherosclerosis lesions of rabbit and man";J Clin Invest.84:186-1989.
Girotti, A.W. 2005, "Mechanism of lipid peroxidation". Free Radic Biol Med.1:87-95;.
Ferrannini, E., Haffner, S.M., Stern, M.P. 2003,"Essential hypertension: an insulin-resistant state". J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ". 518–525;.
Sowers, J.R., Levy, J., Zemel, M.B. 2002, "Hypertension and diabetes".Med Clin North Am. 72: 1399–1414;.
Preuss, M.B., Preuss, H.G. 2007.,"Effects of sucrose on the blood pressure "; Lab Invest.43: 101–107;
Preuss, H.G., Gondal, J.A., Bustos, E., Bushehri, N. 2009,"Effect of chromium on sugar-induced hypertension in rats". Clin Neph .44: 170–177;.
Gharib, N., Gao, C.Y. 2001,"Correlation of chromium and cation transport with blood pressure"; Clin Nephrol .36: 87–92;.
Anderson, R.A., Polansky, M.M. 2007, "Effects of supplemental chromium on patients with symptoms of reactive hyperglycemia";Metabolism. 36: 351–355;.
Tilbrook, L., 2004 Ann Clin Biochem .41(3):255;.
Paolisso, G., Barbagallo ,M., 2007 "Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance: the role of intracellular magnesium"; Am J Hypertens .10:346–355;.
Ramakrishnan, U., Kuklina, E., Stein, A.D. 2006,"Iron stores and cardiovascular disease risk factors in women of reproductive age in the United States". Am J Clin Nutr .76:1256–1260;.
Julius, S., Kjeldsen, S.E. 2004, "Outcomes in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk treated with regimens based on valsartan or amlodipine: the VALUE randomised trial". 363:2022-2031;.
Bakris, G., Parrott, M.A., Raskin, P. 2002,"The treatment of hypertension in adult patients with diabetes". Diabetes Care. 25:134-147;.
Arndt, T., Hackler, R.1997,"Increased serum concentration of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in patients with combined pancreas and kidney transplantation". Clin Chem .43:344-351;
de Jong, G., van Eijk, H.G.2000, "Microheterogeneity of human serum transferrin: a biological phenomenon studied by isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients".9:589-598;.
Swain, J.A., Gutteridge, J. M. 1994. ;"Peroxy nitrite releases copper from caeruloplasmin: implications for atherosclerosis". 342, 49-53;
Choi, S. Y., Kwon, H. Y., 2000."Fragmentation of human ceruloplasmin induced by hydrogen peroxide". Bio chimie .82; 175-180;
Roberts, A.B., McCune, B.K., 2009."TGF-β.1:Regulation of extracellular matrix". Kidney Int.41:557-559;
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work, with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online.