The Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency Among Patients With Schizophrenia in Duhok City

  • Jamal B. Mohamed University of Duhok
  • Sipan S. Haji University of Duhok
Keywords: Vitamin D Deficiency, Patients, Schizophrenia, Duhok


The current cross sectional study, it was aimed to estimate the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency among 110 patients with schizophrenia in Duhok city, who attended the psychiatric Clinic and Department of Azadi teaching hospital. Their total vitamin D level was measured and the result indicated that vitamin D is below the normal level in more than 76% and deficient in 47%.  Statistical analysis of the results showed the presence of a significant difference in incidences between male and female and there were significant increase with the duration of the disease. From the results of the present study concluded that vitamin D deficiency is common in this group of population and most of them were not screened or treated.

Author Biographies

Jamal B. Mohamed, University of Duhok

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region – Iraq.

Sipan S. Haji, University of Duhok

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region – Iraq.


Anglin, R., Samaan, Z., Walter, S., & McDonald, S. (2013). Vitamin D deficiency and depression in adults: systematic review and meta - analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(2), 100-107.

Belvederi Murri, M., Respino, M., Masotti, M., Innamorati, M., Mondelli, V., Pariante, C., & Amore, M. (2013). Vitamin D and psychosis: Mini meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 150(1), 235-239.

Brown, J., Bianco, J., McGrath, J., & Eyles, D. (2003). 1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces nerve growth factor, promotes neurite outgrowth and inhibits mitosis in embryonic rat hippocampal neurons. Neuroscience Letters, 343(2), 139-143.

Crews, M., Lally, J., Gardner-Sood, P., Howes, O., Bonaccorso, S., & mith, S. et al. (2013). Vitamin D deficiency in first episode psychosis: A case–control study. Schizophrenia Research, 150(2-3), 533-537.

Garcion, E., Wion-Barbot, N., Montero-Menei, C., Berger, F., & Wion, D. (2002). New clues about vitamin D functions in the nervous system. Trends In Endocrinology & Metabolism, 13(3), 100-105.

Ganji, V., Milone, C., Cody, M., McCarty, F., & Wang, Y. (2010). Serum vitamin D concentrations are related to depression in young adult US population: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Int Arch Med, 3(1), 29.

Holick, M., Binkley, N., Bischoff-Ferrari, H., Gordon, C., Hanley, D., & Heaney, R. et al. (2011). Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 96(7), 1911-1930.

Hoang, M., DeFina, L., Willis, B., Leonard, D., Weiner, M., & Brown, E. (2011). Association between Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Depression in a Large Sample of Healthy Adults: The Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 86(11), 1050-1055.

Itzhaky D, Amital D, Gorden K, Bogomolni A, Arnson Y, Amital H. (2012). Low serum vitamin D concentrations in patients with schizophrenia. IMAJ, 14(2), 88–92.

Jamilian, H., Bagherzadeh, K., Nazeri, Z., & Hassanijirdehi, M. (2013).Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, serum calcium and phosphorus in patients with schizophrenia and major depression.International Journal Of Psychiatry In Clinical Practice, 17(1), 30-34.

Ju, S., Lee, Y., & Jeong, S. (2012). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and the risk of depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nutr Health Aging, 17, 447–455.

Kendell, R. (2002). Exposure to sunlight, vitamin D and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research,54(3), 193-198.

Kesby, J., Eyles, D., Burne, T., & McGrath, J. (2011). The effects of vitamin D on brain development and adult brain function. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 347(1-2), 121-127.

Kiraly, S., Kiraly, M., Hawe, R., & Makhani, N. (2006). Vitamin D as a Neuroactive Substance: Review. The Scientific World JOURNAL, 6, 125-139.

Llewellyn, D., Langa, K., & Lang, I. (2008). Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Cognitive Impairment. Journal Of Geriatric Psychiatry And Neurology, 22(3), 188-195.

Lee, D., Tajar, A., Ulubaev, A., Pendleton, N., O'Neill, T., & O'Connor, D. et al. (2009). Association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and cognitive performance in middle-aged and older European men.Journal Of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 80(7), 722-729.

Llewellyn, D., Lang, I., Langa, K., & Melzer, D. (2010). Vitamin D and Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly U.S. Population. The Journals Of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences And Medical

Sciences, 66A(1), 59-65.

Maddock, J., Berry, D., Geoffroy, M., Power, C., & Hyppönen, E. (2013). Vitamin D and common mental disorders in mid-life: Cross-sectional and prospective findings. Clinical Nutrition, 32(5), 758-764.

McCann, J., & Ames, B. (2007). Is there convincing biological or behavioral evidence linking vitamin D deficiency to brain dysfunction?. The FASEB Journal, 22(4), 982-1001.

McGrath, J., Saari, K., Hakko, H., Jokelainen, J., Jones, P., & Järvelin, M. et al. (2004). Vitamin D supplementation during the first year of life and risk of schizophrenia: a Finnish birth cohort study. Schizophrenia Research, 67(2-3), 237-245.

McGrath, J., Eyles, D., Pedersen, C., Anderson, C., Ko, P., & Burne, T. et al. (2010). Neonatal Vitamin D Status and Risk of Schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 67(9), 889-8894

Milaneschi, Y., Shardell, M., Corsi, A., Vazzana, R., Bandinelli, S., Guralnik, J., & Ferrucci, L. (2010). Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Depressive Symptoms in Older Women and Men. Endocrinology, 151(6), 2958-2959.

Norelli, L., Coates, A., & Kovasznay, B. (2010). A comparison of 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in acute and long-stay psychiatric inpatients: A preliminary investigation. E-SPEN, The European E- Journal Of Clinical Nutrition And Metabolism, 5(4), e187-e189.

Valipour, G., Saneei, P., & Esmaillzadeh, A. (2014). Serum Vitamin D Levels in Relation to Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 99(10), 3863-3872.
How to Cite
Mohamed, J., & Haji, S. (2016). The Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency Among Patients With Schizophrenia in Duhok City. Science Journal of University of Zakho, 4(1), 32 - 36. Retrieved from
Science Journal of University of Zakho