Detemination of Urea Using Fia-Cl System
In this work a sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of urea was investigated using a reaction between hypobromite and urea in basic medium. The hypobromite (OBr-) was generated by on-line reaction of Br2 with KOH, where Br2 was previously generated by another on-line reaction of KBrO3 with KBr in acidic medium. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of urea in human blood serum after elimination of interferences by several methods. The important one was the introduction of a dialysis unit into the FIA-CL system to eliminate proteins interfering effects by placing it in the sample stream with some modification in the arrangement of FIA-CL system. The linear range of the method in the absence of dialysis unit, where the interference effects were solved by dilution, was 5.0 x 10-7 – 1.0 x 10-2 mol/l urea with a correlation coefficient of 0.9958, a detection limit 8.0 x 10-8 mol/l urea and sample throughput of 180 sample/h. In the presence of dialysis unit, however, these were 1.25 x 10-5 – 0.26 mol/l urea, 0.9987, 2.5 x 10-6mol/l urea and 35 sample/h.
Basson W.D. and Van Staden J. F. (1979).Direct determination of Calcium in Milk on a Non-segmented Continuos Flow System. Analyst, 104, 419 – 424.
Boyer, R. F. (1986). Modern experimental biochemistry(4thed.). Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. in Reading, Mass.
Faizullah A. T. (1985). Continuous flow injection analysis.Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hull.pp. 45.
Fearon W. R. (1939). The carbamidodiacetyl reaction: a test for citrulline. Biochem. J., 33, 902-910.
Frei J., Hill P. G., Heach C. C., El-Nageh M. M., Riesen W. & Poller L. (1995). Production of Basic Diagnostic Laboratory Reagents. WHO reginal publications, eastern Mediterran series 11, Egypt.
Gindler E. M. & Daskalakis O. (1982). Colorimetric urea determination in presence of long hydrocarbon chain amidobetaine.United States Patent, US4357144 A.
Ruzicka J and Hansen E. H. (1976). Flow injection analysis, Part VI. The determination of phosphate and chloride in blood serum by dialysis and sample dilution. Anal.Chim.Acta., 87, 353-363.
Haslam R. M. (1966). Determination of urea by autoanalyser.Technical Bulletin, 5(9), 220-226.
Henery J. B. &Davidsohn T. S. (1974). Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. Sunders and Philadelphia, PA.
Hu X., Takenaka N., Kitano M., Bandow H. & Maeda Y. (1994). Determination of trace amounts of urea by using flow injection with chemiluminescence detection. Analyst, 119, 1829-1833.
Kanagasabapathy A. S. & Sudarshan Kumari (2000). Guidelines on Standard Operating Procedures for Clinical Chemistry. World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia, New Delhi.
Lequang N. T. Migneres G., Roche D., Pelladeau M. L. &Labrousse F. (1987). Improved dye procedure for determining urea concentration by using o-phthalaldehyde and naphthylethylene-diamine. Clin. Chem. 33, 192-196.
Narinesingh D., Pope A. & Ngo T. T. (1992). Flow-injection analysis of serum urea using o-phthalaldehyde and naphthyl-ethylenediamine. Talanta, 39(10):1233-1238.
Overdahl C. J., Rehm G. W. and Meredith H. L. (1991). Fertilizer Urea. (Online), (2004). University of Minnesota/ extension. http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/DC0636.html
Partington, J. R. (Eds). (1962). A History of Chemistry. Macmillan and Co., Ltd.: London.
Partington, J. R. (Eds). (1964). A History of Chemistry. Macmillan and Co., Ltd.: London.
Patuch C. J. & Crouch S. R. (1977). Spectrophotometric and kinetics investigation of the Berthelot reaction for the determination of ammonia. Anal. Chem. 49, 464–469.
Qin W., Zhang Z. &Peng Y. (2000). Plant tissue-based chemiluminescence flow biosensor for urea.Anal.Chim.Acta., 407, 81-86.
Radionov I., Iazovskaia S. Khatipov E. Piatigorskaia M. &Mikhllov I. (1997). A new method for urea detection in biological fluids. Klin Lab. Diagn., 11, 17-20.
Rahmatullah M. & Boyde T. R. (1980). Improvements in the determination of urea using diacetylmonoxime; methods with and without deproteinisation. Clin.Chim.Acta., 107 (1-2) 3-9.
Raimundo Jr. I. M. &Pasquni C. (1997). Automated monosegmented flow analyser. Determination of glucose, creatinine and urea. Analyst 122(10), 1039-1044.
Ruzicka J. and Hansen E.H. (1980). Flow Injection Analysis. Principles, Applications and trends. Anal.Chim.Acta., 114, 19-44.
Ruzicka J. and Hansen E.H. (1988 ). Flow Injection Analysis (2nded.). Wiely Inter science, New York.
Shakir I. M. A. & Faizullah A. T. (1989). Determination of bromide using flow injection and chemiluminescence detection. Analyst, 114(8) 951-954.
Skoog D. A. & West D. M. (1976). Fundamental of Analytical Chemistry (3rded.). Holt, Reinhort and Winston, New York.
Somogy M. (1945). Determination of Blood Sugar. J. Biol. Chem., 160, 69-73.
Varley H., Gownlock A. H. & Bell M. (Eds) (1980). Practical Clinical Biochemistry. William Heinemann Medical books LTD, London.
Vogel A. (1979). Text book of Macro and Semimicro Qualtitative Inorganic Analysis. Longman Inc., New York, USA.
Wilcox A. A., Carrol W. E., Sterling R. E., Davids H. A. & Ware A. G. (1966). Use of the Berthelot reaction in the automated analysis of serum urea nitrogen. Clin. Chem., 12(3) 151-157.
Wilson B. W. (1966). Automatic estimation of urea using urease and alkaline phenol. Clin. Chem., 12(6), 160-168.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work, with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online.