Font Recognition of English Letters Based on Distance Profile Features
This paper presents a system for recognizing English fonts from character images. The distance profile is the feature of choice used in this paper. The system extracts a vector of 106 features and feeds it into a support vector machine (SVM) classifier with a radial basis function (RBF) kernel. The experiment is divided into three phases. In the first phase, the system trains the SVM with different Gamma and C parameters. In the second phase, the validation phase, we validate and select the pair of Gamma and C values that yield the best recognition rates. In the final phase, the testing phase, the images are tested and the recognition rate is reported. Experimental results based on 27,620 characters glyph images from three English fonts show a 94.82% overall recognition rate.
Al-Khaffaf, H. S., Shafait, F., Cutter, M. P., & Breuel, T. M. (2012, November). On the performance of Decapod's digital font reconstruction. In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR2012) (pp. 649-652). IEEE.
Bharath, V., & Rani, N. S. (2017, June). A font style classification system for English OCR. In 2017 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control (I2C2) (pp. 1-5). IEEE.
Bishop, C. M. (2006). Pattern recognition and machine learning. springer.
Bouchut, Q., Appiah, K., Lotfi, A., & Dickinson, P. (2018, June). Ensemble One-vs-One SVM Classifier for Smartphone Accelerometer Activity Recognition. In 2018 IEEE 20th International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 16th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 4th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS) (pp. 1110-1115). IEEE.
Bui, T., & Collomosse, J. (2015, September). Font finder: Visual recognition of typeface in printed documents. In 2015 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) (pp. 3926-3930). IEEE.
Cortes, C., & Vapnik, V. (1995). Support-vector networks. Machine learning, 20(3), 273-297.
Hajiannezhad, A., & Mozaffari, S. (2012, May). Font recognition using variogram fractal dimension. In 20th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE2012) (pp. 634-639). IEEE.
Jaiem, F. K., Slimane, F., & Kherallah, M. (2017, February). Arabic font recognition system applied to different text entity level analysis. In 2017 International Conference on Smart, Monitored and Controlled Cities (SM2C) (pp. 36-40). IEEE.
Kanungo, T., Haralick, R. M., Baird, H. S., Stuezle, W., & Madigan, D. (2000). A statistical, nonparametric methodology for document degradation model validation. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 22(11), 1209-1223.
Katiyar, G., Katiyar, A., & Mehfuz, S. (2017). Off-line handwritten character recognition system using support vector machine. American Journal of Neural Networks and Applications, 3(2), 22-28.
Kecman, V. (2005). Support vector machines–an introduction. In Support vector machines: theory and applications (pp. 1-47). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Kowalczyk, A. (2017). Support vector machines succinctly. Syncfusion Inc.
Liu, Y., Wang, R., & Zeng, Y. S. (2007, August). An improvement of one-against-one method for multi-class support vector machine. In 2007 International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics (Vol. 5, pp. 2915-2920). IEEE.
Scholkopf, B., Sung, K. K., Burges, C. J., Girosi, F., Niyogi, P., Poggio, T., & Vapnik, V. (1997). Comparing support vector machines with Gaussian kernels to radial basis function classifiers. IEEE transactions on Signal Processing, 45(11), 2758-2765.
Senobari, E. M., & Khosravi, H. (2012, October). Farsi font recognition based on combination of wavelet transform and sobel-robert operator features. In 2012 2nd International eConference on Computer and Knowledge Engineering (ICCKE) (pp. 29-33). IEEE.
SKLearn Library (2020, February 21). https://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/generated/sklearn.svm.SVC.html. Accessed on Sep 2019.
Tensmeyer, C., Saunders, D., & Martinez, T. (2017, November). Convolutional neural networks for font classification. In 2017 14th IAPR international conference on document analysis and recognition (ICDAR) (Vol. 1, pp. 985-990). IEEE.
Xu, Y., Zomer, S., & Brereton, R. G. (2006). Support vector machines: a recent method for classification in chemometrics. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 36(3-4), 177-188.
Copyright (c) 2020 Aveen J. Mohammed, Ms., Hasan Salim Mohammed Al-Khaffaf
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work, with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online.