Curcumin Gel Versus Chlorhexidine Gel for Treatment of Chronic Gingivitis Associated with Fixed Orthodontic Appliance


  • Sawsan Ramadhan Hussein College of Dentistry, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Sherzad Khorsheed Rashid College of Pharmacy, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.



Curcumin gel, Chlorhexidine gel, dental plaque-induced gingivitis, orthodontic treatment, anti-plaque, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial effect


Background and aims: Gingivitis in orthodontic treatment remains a challenging and undesirable consequence of orthodontic treatment. Hence, a variety of chemical or herbal agents, methods, and techniques have been investigated to prevent or reduce gingivitis that occurs in orthodontic treatment. In this study, we will evaluate and compare the effect of curcumin (CMN) gel with chlorhexidine (CHX) gel on clinical parameters (plaque and gingival index) and oral bacterial number (total bacterial count test) in fixed orthodontic patients that have gingivitis. We are the first to use curcumin gel for patients that have gingivitis with fixed orthodontic appliances. Samples and Methods: Forty-five patients with fixed orthodontic appliances with metallic brackets that have generalized chronic dental plaque-induced gingivitis were selected randomly and divided into three groups - Group I (control), Group II (CMN), and Group III (CHX), respectively. Clinical parameters which are plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) were recorded at the baseline, 14 days, and 21 days of treatment, and a total bacterial count test (TBCT) was done for all the participants before and after treatment. Results: Both Curcumin and Chlorhexidine gel groups showed a significant reduction (P<0.05) in PI, GI, and TBCT compared to the control group at the end of treatment (after 21 days). However, there was no significant difference between Curcumin and Chlorhexidine gel groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study show that curcumin and chlorhexidine gel have comparable anti-plaque, anti-gingivitis, and antibacterial activities and that both can be used to effectively treat plaque-induced gingivitis.

Author Biographies

Sawsan Ramadhan Hussein, College of Dentistry, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

College of Dentistry, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq-(

Sherzad Khorsheed Rashid, College of Pharmacy, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

College of Pharmacy, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq-(


Anitha, V., Rajesh, P., Shanmugam, M., Priya, B. M., Prabhu, S., & Shivakumar, V. (2015). Comparative evaluation of natural curcumin and synthetic chlorhexidine in the management of chronic periodontitis as a local drug delivery: A clinical and microbiological study. Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research, 26(1), 53–56.

Anuradha, B. R., Bai, Y. D., Sailaja, S., Sudhakar, J., Priyanka, M., & Deepika, V. (2015). Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Curcumin Gel as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing: A Clinical Study. Journal of International Oral Health : JIOH, 7(7), 90–93.

Arora, R. B., Kapoor, V., Basu, N., & Jain, A. P. (1971). Anti-inflammatory studies on Curcuma longa (turmeric). The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 59(8), 1289–1295.

Arunachalam, L. T., Sudhakar, U., Vasanth, J., Khumukchum, S., & Selvam, V. V. (2017). Comparison of anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis effect of curcumin and chlorhexidine mouth rinse in the treatment of gingivitis: A clinical and biochemical study. Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, 21(6), 478–483.

Charles, C. H., Mostler, K. M., Bartels, L. L., & Mankodi, S. M. (2004). Comparative antiplaque and antigingivitis effectiveness of a chlorhexidine and an essential oil mouthrinse: 6-month clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 31(10), 878–884.

Chaudhari, A., Karhadkar, V., Waghmare, P., & Jamkhande, A. (2011). Comparative Evaluation of Turmeric and Chlorhexidine Gluconate Mouthwash in Prevention of Plaque Formation and Gingivitis: A Clinical and Microbiological Study. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, 12(4), 221–224.

Cosyn, J., & Verelst, K. (2006). An efficacy and safety analysis of a chlorhexidine chewing gum in young orthodontic patients. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 33(12), 894–899.

Daneshmand, N., Jorgensen, M. G., Nowzari, H., Morrison, J. L., & Slots, J. (2002). Initial effect of controlled release chlorhexidine on subgingival microorganisms. Journal of Periodontal Research, 37(5), 375–379.

Fiorellini, J. P., & Paquette, D. W. (1992). The potential role of controlled-release delivery systems for chemotherapeutic agents in periodontics. Current Opinion in Dentistry, 2, 63–79.

Forouzanfar, F., Forouzanfar, A., Sathyapalan, T., Orafai, H. M., & Sahebkar, A. (2020). Curcumin for the Management of Periodontal Diseases: A Review. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 26(34), 4277–4284.

Ghatak, N., & Basu, N. (1972). Sodium curcuminate as an effective anti-inflammatory agent. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 10(3), 235–236.

Gunes, H., Gulen, D., Mutlu, R., Gumus, A., Tas, T., & Topkaya, A. E. (2016). Antibacterial effects of curcumin: An in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration study. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 32(2), 246–250.

Izui, S., Sekine, S., Maeda, K., Kuboniwa, M., Takada, A., Amano, A., & Nagata, H. (2016). Antibacterial Activity of Curcumin Against Periodontopathic Bacteria. Journal of Periodontology, 87(1), 83–90.

Kandwal, A., Mamgain, R. K., & Mamgain, P. (2015). Comparative evaluation of turmeric gel with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate gel for treatment of plaque induced gingivitis: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Ayu, 36(2), 145–150.

Kitada, K., Toledo, A. D., & Oho, T. (2009). Increase in detectable opportunistic bacteria in the oral cavity of orthodontic patients. International Journal of Dental Hygiene, 7(2), 121–125.

Lo, B. A. M., Di Marco, R., Milazzo, I., Nicolosi, D., Calì, G., Rossetti, B., & Blandino, G. (2008). Microbiological and clinical periodontal effects of fixed orthodontic appliances in pediatric patients. The New Microbiologica, 31(2), 299–302.

Loe, H., & Silness, J. (1963). PERIODONTAL DISEASE IN PREGNANCY. I. PREVALENCE AND SEVERITY. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 21, 533–551.

Mali, A., Behal, R., & Gilda, S. (2012). Comparative evaluation of 0.1% turmeric mouthwash with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate in prevention of plaque and gingivitis: A clinical and microbiological study. Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, 16, 386–391.

Marchesan, J. T., Girnary, M. S., Moss, K., Monaghan, E. T., Egnatz, G. J., Jiao, Y., Zhang, S., Beck, J., & Swanson, K. V. (2020). Role of inflammasomes in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease and therapeutics. Periodontology 2000, 82(1), 93–114.

Menon, V. P., & Sudheer, A. R. (2007). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 595, 105–125.

Mizrak, T., Güncü, G. N., Caglayan, F., Balci, T. A., Aktar, G. S., & Ipek, F. (2006). Effect of a controlled-release chlorhexidine chip on clinical and microbiological parameters and prostaglandin E2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid. Journal of Periodontology, 77(3), 437–443.

Morrow, D., Wood, D. P., & Speechley, M. (1992). Clinical effect of subgingival chlorhexidine irrigation on gingivitis in adolescent orthodontic patients. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics: Official Publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, Its Constituent Societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics, 101(5), 408–413.

Nagpal, M., & Sood, S. (2013). Role of curcumin in systemic and oral health: An overview. Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine, 4(1), 3–7.

Nagunuri, D., & Babitha, G. (2016). Comparative Evaluation of 0.1% Turmeric Mouthwash with 0.2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate in Prevention of Plaque and Gingivitis: A Clinical Study. CODS Journal of Dentistry, 8(1), 16–20.

Poosti, M., Radvar, M., Yaghoobi, S., & Ahmadi, R. (2006). Comparing the effect of Chlorhexidine and Persica mouthrinses on periodontal status of fixed orthodontic patients. Journal of Mashhad Dental School, 30(Issue), Article Issue.

Sha, A. M., & Garib, B. T. (2019). Antibacterial Effect of Curcumin against Clinically Isolated Porphyromonas gingivalis and Connective Tissue Reactions to Curcumin Gel in the Subcutaneous Tissue of Rats. BioMed Research International, 2019, e6810936.

Shirban, F., Gharibpour, F., Ehteshami, A., Bagherniya, M., Sathyapalan, T., & Sahebkar, A. (2021). The Effects of Curcumin in the Treatment of Gingivitis: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 1291, 179–211.

Stoyell, K. A., Mappus, J. L., & Gandhi, M. A. (2016). Clinical efficacy of turmeric use in gingivitis: A comprehensive review. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 25, 13–17.

Teow, S.-Y., Liew, K., Ali, S. A., Khoo, A. S.-B., & Peh, S.-C. (2016). Antibacterial Action of Curcumin against Staphylococcus aureus: A Brief Review. Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2016, e2853045.

Trombelli, L., Farina, R., Silva, C. O., & Tatakis, D. N. (2018). Plaque-induced gingivitis: Case definition and diagnostic considerations. Journal of Periodontology, 89 Suppl 1, S46–S73.

Türkkahraman, H., Sayin, M. O., Bozkurt, F. Y., Yetkin, Z., Kaya, S., & Onal, S. (2005). Archwire ligation techniques, microbial colonization, and periodontal status in orthodontically treated patients. The Angle Orthodontist, 75(2), 231–236.

Wal, P., Saraswat, N., Pal, R. S., Wal, A., & Chaubey, M. (2019). A Detailed Insight of the Anti-inflammatory Effects of Curcumin with the Assessment of Parameters, Sources of ROS and Associated Mechanisms. Open Medicine Journal, 6(1).

Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, S., Abdul Kadir, H., Hassandarvish, P., Tajik, H., Abubakar, S., & Zandi, K. (2014). A Review on Antibacterial, Antiviral, and Antifungal Activity of Curcumin. BioMed Research International, 2014, e186864.




How to Cite

Hussein, S. R., & Rashid, S. K. (2023). Curcumin Gel Versus Chlorhexidine Gel for Treatment of Chronic Gingivitis Associated with Fixed Orthodontic Appliance. Science Journal of University of Zakho, 11(1), 16–21.



Science Journal of University of Zakho