Quality Assessment of Some Bottled Water That Available in Erbil City, Iraq by Using Water Quality Index for Drinking Purposes
Consumers are reacting with water quality problems by buying bottled water which is an expensive solution and only partially resolve the problem. Subsequently, sales of bottled water have increased dramatically in the last ten years; therefore this study was conducted in Erbil city with the major objective of assessing suitability of bottled water quality for drinking purposes through water quality index (WQI) investigation. This was done by subjecting 84 bottled samples collected from different market within 6 months from January to June 2012 to comprehensive physico-chemical analysis using standard methods of analysis. For calculating the WQI, 10 parameters have been considered: Turbidity, Electrical conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, pH, Alkalinity, Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Nitrate and Sulfate. The WQI for these samples ranges from 11.953 to 137.532. Using the water quality index all the bottled samples were classified as excellent to good water they are suitable for drinking purposes except Vauban bottled water which was bad and unsuitable for drinking. A comparison between water quality and the maximum permissible levels depended on the world health organization (WHO) guidelines was reported and discussed. They were varied in composition among the brands and from.
Abdul Hameed M.; Jawad .A; Maulood .B .K; Abass J. K.(2010b). Evaluating Raw and Treated Water Quality of Tigris River within Baghdad by Index Analysis. J. Water Resource and Protection, 2, 629-635.
Abdul Hameed M.; Jawad. A; Abid H. S.; Maulood B. K. (2010a). Application of Water Quality Index for Assessment of Dokan Lake Ecosystem, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2, 792-798.
Ahipathy M. V. and Puttaiah. E. T. (2006). Ecological Characteristics of Vrishabhavathy River in Bangalore (India).Environmental geology, Vol. 49, No. 8, pp. 1217-1222.
Alam, M and Pathick, J.K. (2010). Rapid Assessment of Water Quality Index of Ramganga River, Western Uttar Pradesh (India) Using a Computer Programme. Nature and Science 2010; 8(11).
Ali, L.A.(2010). Seasonal variation in physico-chemical properties and zooplankton biomass in greater zab River
Bruvold, W.H and Ongerth, H.J (1969). Taste quality of mineralized water. Am. Water Works Assoc., 61:170.
Buchholz, RA. (1998). Principles of environmental management. The Greening of Business, 2nd. Prentice-Hall, London, UK, 448p.
Cole, G.A.(1983). Textbook of Limnology. 3rd Edition.C.V.Mosby CO.London.410pp.
Dorothy,S and Nicholas,D.(2005).Technology of Bottled Water.2nd Edition. By Blackwell Publishing Ltd .262pp.
Gleick, PH (2006). The world’s water. The Biennial Report on Fresh water Resources. Washington. Island Press. ISBN13:978159261050.
Hassan,I.O.(1998). Urban hydrology of Erbil city region.Ph.D.Thesis.University of Baghdad. Iraq.
Hem,J.D.(1985). Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural wate.3rd Edition. U.S.G.S. Water Supply.356pp.
Horton R.R. (1965) An index number system for rating water quality. J. Wat. Pollut. Control. Fed. 37: 300-306.
In Iraq. Jordan J of Biological Sciences. Vol3(3): 115-120
Lefort, R (2006). Down to the last drop. UNESCO .Sources. No. 84, p.7.
Mandalm P., Upadhyay, R and Hasan, A. (2009). Seasonal and spatial variation of Yamuna River water quality in Delhi, India. Environ Monit Assess, DOI 10.1007/s10661-009-1265-2.
Marque S, Jacqmin-Gadda, H, Dartigues, J.F and Commenges, D (2003). Cardiovascular mortality and calcium and magnesium in drinking water: an ecological study in elderly people. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 18(4):305-9.
McCasland, M.; Trautmann, N.M.; Robert, R.J and Porter, K.S. (2007). Center for Environmental Research and Natural resources. Cornell Cooperative Extension Nitrate: Health effects in drinking water. http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/facts-slidesself/ facts/nit-heef-grw85.html. Accessed May 15, 2009.
Mohanty S. K.(2004).Water Quality Index of Four Religious Ponds and its Seasonal Variation in the Temple City, Bhuvaneshwar,” In: A. Kumar, Ed., Water pollution, APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, pp. 211-218.
NAS (1977). Food ingredients. Washington, DC, National Academy of Sciences, Subcommittee on Research of GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) List (Phase II) (DHEW No. FDA 70-22).
Prasad K. (2008), Institutional Framework for Regulating Use of Ground Water in India, Central Ground Water Board, Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India, http://cgwb.gov.in/INCGW/Kamta%20Prasad%20report.pdf, Accessed 28 September 2011.
Ramakrishnaiah,C.; Sadashivaiah, R. C. and Ranganna G.(2009).Assessment of Water Quality Index for the Ground Water in Tumkur Taluk,” E-Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 523-530.
Shekha, Y.A.(2011).Houshold Solid Waste Content in Erbil City,Traqi Kurdistan Region,Iraq.Journal of Zanco 23(3): 1-9.
Shekha,Y.A and Al- Abaychi,J.(2010).Use of water quality index and dissolved oxygen saturation as indicators
Srinivasamoorthy K.; Chidambaram, M.; Prasanna, M.V.; Vasanthavigar, M.; John, A and Peter, A. P (2008). Identification of major sources controlling Groundwater Chemistry from a hard rock terrain-A case study from Mettur taluk, Salem district, Tamilnadu, India. J. Earth Syst. Sci., 117(1): 49-58.
Tiwari T.N. and Mishra M.(1985) A preliminary assignment of water quality index to major Indian rivers. IJEP; 5(4): 276-9.
Toma, J. J. (2004).Weekly and spatial variation of physico-chemicals variables and algal composition in Kasnazan impoundment, Erbil. Iraq. Accepted for publication in Journal of Babylon University. 10(3).
Toma, J.J. (2012). Water quality index for assessment of water quality of Duhok Lake, Kurdistan region of Iraq. J. Adv. Lab. Res. Bio. Vol. 3 (2):142-147.
Versari ,A.; Parpinello, G.P and Galassi S. (2002) survey of Italian bottled mineral waters by means of their labeled physico-chemical and chemical composition. J Food Compos Anal;15:251–64.
Vidvan Vishvam (2003), Atharvaveda Samhita, Tirumala Triupati Devasthanams, Triupati, 1(4), pp 16-17.
Warburton,D.W and Austin,J.W(2000).Bottled water, in the Microbiological Safety and Quality of Food(eds B.M.Lund.T.C.Baird Parker and G.W.Gould).Volum1 An Aspen Publication.
water pollution of Erbil wastewater channel greater zab River.J of Duhok Univ.3(2):24-35.
WHO (1993). World Health Organization, Guidelines for drinking water quality-I, Recommendations, 2nd Ed. Geneva.
World Health Organization. (2004). Guidelines for Drinking- Water Quality,” 3rd Edition, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work, with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online.