New Records of Fungi on Wheat Grains From Iraq
The present study recorded eight fungal species on wheat grains for the first time in Iraq. These included Arthrinium phaeospermum, Bipolaris sorokiniana, B.spicifera, Chaetomium elatum, Emericella rugulosa, Eurotium herbariorum Nigrospora state of Khuskia oryzae and Ulocladium alternariae. Brief descriptions with photographs are provided for the newly recorded species.
Abdullah, S.K and Abbas, B. A. (2008). Fungi inhabiting surface sediments of Shatt Al-Arab river and its creeks at Basrah, Iraq. Basrah J.Sci.B, 26:68-81.
Abdullah, S. K. and Al-Mosawi , K. A. (2006). Diversity of fungal species associated with maize (Zea mays L.) Cultivars grown in Iraq.Proc.12th Cong. Mediterr. Phytopathol. Union, Rhodes Island, Greece, pp. 69-72.
Abdullah, S. K. and Al-Mosawi , K. A. (2009). Incidence of Aspergillus species in seeds of corn and sunflower cultivars grown in Iraq. 1st. Scient. Conf. Biol. Sci. 22-32 April, 2009. University of Mosul, pp299- 307.
Abdullah, S. K and Al-Mosawi, K. A. (2010). Fungi associated with seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cultivars grown in Iraq. Phytopathologia 57:11-20.
Abdullah, S. K and Saadullah , A. A. (2013). Soil mycobiota at grapevine plantations in Duhok, North Iraq. Mesopotamia J. Agric. 41Suppl. (1):437- 447.
Abdullah, S. K. and Salih , Y. A. (2010) Mycobiota associated with sugarcane (Sacharum officinarum L.) cultivars in Iraq. JJBS 3:193-202
Abdullah, S. K and Zora, S. E. (1993) . Soil microfungi from date palm plantations in Iraq. Basrah J. Sci. B,11:45-68.
Abdullah, W. R. and Abdullah , S. K. (2009) Taxonomic study on Aspergilli and their telomorphs from soil in north Iraq. Proc. 1st Scient. Conf.Biol.Sci.22-32 April, 2009, University of Mosul, pp.328-363.
Agrawal ,V. K and Sinclair , J. B. ( 1987 ) Mechanism of seed infection, in Principle of Seed Pathology .CRC Press Inc . 176pp.
Arx, J. A. Von , Guarro , j and Figueras, J. M. (1986). The ascomycete genus Chaetomium, Nova HedwigiaBeih, 841:1-162.
Broggi, L. E. , Gonzalez, .H. H. I and Ana Pecin, S. L. R. (2007). Alternaria alternate prevalence in cereal grains and soybean seeds from Entre Rios, Argentina. Rev.Iberoam.Mycol.24:47-51.
Christensen ,C.M and Kaufman ,H.H.(1969). Grain storage: The role of fungi in quality loss .University of Minnesota press., Minneapolis, M N. 153 pp.
Clear, R. M and Patrick ,S. K. (1993). Prevalence of some seed -borne fungi on soft white winter wheat seed from Ontario ,Canada. Can. Plant Dis .Surv. 73:143-149.
Ellis, M. B. (1971). Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes, Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, England 608 pp..
Ellis, M. B. (1976). More Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes, Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, England 507pp.
Flannigan , R. (1970). Comparison of seed –borne mycoflora of barley ,oats and wheat grains. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc..55:267-276.
Gohari , A. M, sedachat, N. , Javan - Nikhah, M and Saberi-riseh, R. (2007). Mycoflora of wheat grains in the main production area in kerman province, Iran. Int. J. Agric.Biol.9:635-637.
Guarro,J. , Gene, J. , Stchigel, A and Figueras , M. J. (2012). Atlas of Soil Ascomycetes. CBS Biodiversity series 10, CBS –KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands , 486 pp.
Haleem, R. A. , Saido, K.a , Abdullah, S. K., Aldeen, S. N and Waesi, I. M. (2013). Fungi associated with freshly harvested corn grains in Duhok governorate. J.Univ. Zakho A-Science 1(2):569-574.
HGCA (2012).Wheat disease management guide. Agriculture and Horticulture Department Board. HGCA publication, Warwickshire, U.K.
Juber, K. S and Al-Salahi, G. M. (2006). Detection of fungi associated with wheat grains imported to Iraq. Iraqi J. Agric. Sci. 37(1): 143-148.(in Arabic).
Klich, M. A. (2002). Identification of common Aspergillus Species, CBS, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 116pp. Kurowski,t.p.and Wysocka, U. (2009). Fungi colonizing grains of winter spelt grown under two production systems. Phytopathologia 54:45-52.
Mathur, S. B and Kongsdal, O (2003).Common laboratort seed health testing methods for detecting fungi. ISTA, Basseradorf.Switzerland 427pp.
Naraiah,M.I., Rai,P.V and Rajagopor,R.S (1986). Aflatoxin production in wheat flour and its effect on protein and carbohydrate content of flour. J.Food Sci.Tech.23(1):20-24.
Sarhan, A.R.T.(2013) Biological control of Heminthosporium sativum the causal agent of root rot in wheat by some antagonistic fungi. Egypt Acad. J. Biology. Sci. G. Microbiology 5(2)1-8.
Sivanesan , A. (1987). Graminicolous species of Bipolaris, Curvularia, Drechslera,Exserohilum and their teleomorphs. Mycological papers No.158, C.A.B. International Mycological Institute, U.K.247pp.
Watanabe, T. (2002). Pictorial Atlas of Soil and Seed Fungi. CRC Press, London,UK.486 pp.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work, with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online.