Preparation of Activated Carbon from Helhelok Stones by Chemical Activation

  • Alarqam Z. Tareq University of Zakho
  • Mohammed S. Hussein University of Zakho
  • Pyman A. Abdujabar University of Zakho
Keywords: Activated Carbon, Helhelok, Chemical activation, Zinc chloride


In his study activated carbon was prepared from Helhelok stones as a raw material by using chemical activation with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) as a chemical agent with the concentration 40% for 25h at (25⁰C±2). The optimum conditions were approved in having carbonization temperature 400ᵒC for 1h to get a maximum percentage of yield 56%. Other properties of the prepared activated carbon were also studied such as pH, ash content, density, moisture content, conductivity, iodine number and methylene blue dye absorbance. Eventually the prepared activated carbon in this work has obtained good characteristics that make it play an essential role in industrial uses and compared it with commercial standard sample from B. D. H Company.

Author Biographies

Alarqam Z. Tareq, University of Zakho

Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zakho, Kurdistan Region - Iraq.

Mohammed S. Hussein, University of Zakho

Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zakho, Kurdistan Region - Iraq.

Pyman A. Abdujabar, University of Zakho

Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zakho, Kurdistan Region - Iraq.


[1] G.ElShafei, I. ElSherbiny, A. Darwish, and C. Philip, “Silkworms’ feces-based activated carbons as cheap adsorbents for removal of cadmium and methylene blue from aqueous solutions,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des., vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 461–470, 2014.
[2] Y. Juan and Q. Ke-Qiang, “Preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation under vacuum,” Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 3385–3390, 2009.
[3] Z. Liu, Y. Huang, and G. Zhao, “Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fibers from liquefied wood by ZnCl2 activation,” BioResources, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 3178–3190, 2016.
[4] J. Hayashi, A. Kazehaya, K. Muroyama, and A. Watkinson, “Preparation of activated carbon from lignin by chemical activation,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 38, no. 13, pp. 1873–1878, 2000.
[5] A. Lua and J. Guo, “Activated carbon prepared from oil palm stone by one-step CO2 activation for gaseous pollutant removal,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1089–1097, 2000.
[6] F. Avelar, M. Bianchi, M. Gonçalves, and E. da Mota, “The use of piassava fibers (Attalea funifera) in the preparation of activated carbon,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 101, no. 12, pp. 4639–4645, 2010.
[7] D. Lozano-Castello, M. Lillo-Rodenas, D. Cazorla-Amoros, and A. Linares-Solano, “Preparation of activated carbons from Spanish anthracite: I. Activation by KOH,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 741–749, 2001.
[8] J. Hayashi, M. Uchibayashi, T. Horikawa, K. Muroyama, and V. Gomes, “Synthesizing activated carbons from resins by chemical activation with K2CO3,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 40, no. 15, pp. 2747–2752, 2002.
[9] A. Puziy, O. Poddubnaya, A. Martınez-Alonso, F. Suárez-Garcıa, and J. Tascón, “Synthetic carbons activated with phosphoric acid III. Carbons prepared in air,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1181–1191, 2003.
[10] J. Li, D. Ng, P. Song, C. Kong, and Y. Song, “Preparation and characterization of high-surface-area activated carbon fibers from silkworm cocoon waste for congo red adsorption,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 75, pp. 189–200, 2015.
[11] A. Kumar and H. Jena, “High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 356, pp. 753–761, 2015.
[12] A. Jain, R. Balasubramanian, and M. Srinivasan, “Hydrothermal conversion of biomass waste to activated carbon with high porosity: A review,” Chem. Eng. J., vol. 283, pp. 789–805, 2016.
[13] R. Baccar, J. Bouzid, M. Feki, and A. Montiel, “Preparation of activated carbon from Tunisian olive-waste cakes and its application for adsorption of heavy metal ions,” J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 162, no. 2–3, pp. 1522–1529, 2009.
[14] I. Tan, B. Hameed, and A. Ahmad, “Equilibrium and kinetic studies on basic dye adsorption by oil palm fibre activated carbon,” Chem. Eng. J., vol. 127, no. 1–3, pp. 111–119, 2007.
[15] A. Algidsawi, “A Study of ability of adsorption of some dyes on activated carbon from date’s stones,” Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci., vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 1397–1403, 2011.
[16] H. Zhang, Y. Yan, and L. Yang, “Preparation of activated carbons from sawdust by chemical activation,” Adsorpt. Sci. Technol., vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 533–543, 2008.
[17] B. Xu, Y. Chen, G. Wei, G. Cao, and H. Zhang, “Activated carbon with high capacitance prepared by NaOH activation for supercapacitors,” Mater. Chem. Phys., vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 504–509, 2010.
[18] D. Adinata, W. Daud, and M. Aroua, “Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from palm shell by chemical activation with K2CO3,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 145–149, 2007.
[19] W. Bae, J. Kim, and J. Chung, “Production of granular activated carbon from food-processing wastes (walnut shells and jujube seeds) and its adsorptive properties,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 879–886, 2014.
[20] A. Abdullah, A. Kassim, Z. Zainal, M. Hussien, and D. Kuang, “Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from gelam wood bark (Melaleuca cajuputi),” Malaysian J. Anal. Sci., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 65–68, 2001.
[21] S. Senthilkumaar, P. Kalaamani, K. Porkodi, P. Varadarajan, and C. Subburaam, “Adsorption of dissolved reactive red dye from aqueous phase onto activated carbon prepared from agricultural waste,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 97, no. 14, pp. 1618–1625, 2006.
How to Cite
Tareq, A., Hussein, M., & Abdujabar, P. (2018). Preparation of Activated Carbon from Helhelok Stones by Chemical Activation. Science Journal of University of Zakho, 6(3), 100-103.
Science Journal of University of Zakho