Anatomical and Palynological Characters of Celtis L. In Kurdistan-Iraq


  • Saleem E. Shahbaz University of Duhok
  • Nazar M. Sharif Duhok Agriculture Directorate, Ministry of Agriculture



Celtis australis L, Celtis tournefortii Lam, Celtis tournefortii var, tournefoertii, C. tournefortii var, glabrata (Stev. ex Planch.) Bois, Lithocysts, Celtis-type grain, Ulmus-type grain


Anatomical and palynological characters of Celtis genus growing in Iraq were studied in an attempt to provide useful features to delimit taxa and to refine taxonomic relationships. Results revealed the presence of lithocysts inside the leaf structure of C. tournefortii with few of them forming very small protrusion out of the leaf, while in C. australis lithocysts form large protrusion out from the leaf. The large midrib adaxial hump of C. tournefortii constitute a wide area between the two sides of the leaf blade, while in C. australis the small midrib adaxial hump produce narrow area between the two sides of the leaf blade. Stomata are of anomocytic type in C. australis while, anomocytic and paracytic in C. tourneforti. Furthermore, simple hairs are dense on the adaxial side of the petiole of C. tournefortii var. tournefortii, while absent from the adaxial side of the petiole of C. tournefortii var. glabrata. Leaves of all taxa are distinctly bifacial, hypostomatic, and provided with one layer of palisade parenchyma. Pollen grains are 3-porate, rarely 4-porate. A sunken area in the aperture surrounding a pore is distinct. Pollen is mediae in size and subprolate in shape, the pollen grains of C. australis together with var. glabrata belong to Celtis-type grain, while, var. tournefoertii to the Ulmus-type grain. The high anatomical and palynological differences between varieties of C. tournefoertii support promotion of these two varieties to the specific level.

Author Biographies

Saleem E. Shahbaz, University of Duhok

College of Agriculture, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

Nazar M. Sharif, Duhok Agriculture Directorate, Ministry of Agriculture

Duhok Agriculture Directorate, Ministry of Agriculture, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.


Ellis, R. P. 1979: A Procedure for standardizing comparative leaf anatomy in the Poaceae , II. The epidermis as seen in surface view. - Bothalia 12(4): 641-671.
Erdtman, G. (1945). Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. Morina, L., with an addition on Pollen- morphology terminology. Svensek. Botany Tidskr. Vol.39.
Erdtman, G. (1966). Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy-Angiosperms (An introduction to palynology). Revised Edition. Haner Pub. Co., New York and London.
Erdtman, G. (1971). Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. Hsfner publishing company. New York. USA.
Florin R. (1933). Studien über die Cycadales des Mesozoikums. Erörterungen über die Spltöffnungdapparate der Bennettitales. K. Svenska Vet. Akad. handl. 12: 1-134.
Leonardi, D., O. Disapio, M. Gattuso and S. Gattuso. (2002). Caracteres morfoanatómicos de la corteza y hojas de Tabebuia impetiginosa y T. heptaphylla (Bignoniaceae). Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 37: 51-61.
Mantese, A. I. and N. H. Montaldo. (2002). Contribución a la anatomía foliar de Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Myrtaceae). Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot . 37: 167-170.
Mehrdad Zarafshar, Moslem Akbarinia, Ali Sattarian and Laurentius Josephus Gerardus van der Maesen. (2010). Pollen Morphology of Iranian Celtis (Celtidaceae -Ulmaceae). Botanica Serbica 34 (2): 145-149.
Metcalfe, C. R., & Chalk, L. (1950). Anatomy of the Dicotyledons. 2 vols. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Ponessa, G. I.; A. M. Zenoff; M. F., Parrado; H., Moreno. (1998). Morfoanatomía y composición lipídica en hojas de Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae) y Tipuana tipu (Benth.) O. Kunth (Fabaceae).Lilloa 39: 137-141. Press, Oxford, pp. 23-25.
Punt, W., S. Blackman, S. Nilsoon and A. LeThomas (1999). Glossary of pollen and spore terminology. 2nd rev. (ed.P. Hoen) Utrech: LPP, Utrech. Univ. LPP Found. (
Radford, A. E. ; Dikison, W. C. ; Massey, J. R. and Beu, C. R. (1974). Vascular plant systematic, Harpar and Raw press, New York. USA.
Raven, P. H.; Evert, R. F. and Eichhorn, S. E. (2005) Biology of Plants (7th edition) W. H. Freeman, New York, page 9, ISBN 0-7167-1007-2
Stace, C. (1980). Plant taxonomy and Dicotyledonous, vol. I. Clarendon Suarez, G. M., A. M. C. Ruffino, M. E. Arias and P. L. Albornoz. (2004). Anatomía de hoja, fruto y semilla de Cupania vernalis (Sapindaceae), especie de importancia en frugivoría. Lilloa 41: 57-69.
Taha, Shahat M.A. El-Alfya, Hamida Mohamed A. El-Goharya, Nadia Mohamed Sokkara, Sahar Abd El-Tawabb, Dalia Adel Mohamed Al-Mahdya. (2011) Botanical and genetic characteristics of Celtis australis L. and Celtis occidentalis L. grow Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Egypt.Volume 49, Issue 1, PP. 37-57.
Wagner, M. L. & G. I. Ponessa. 2004. Morfología foliar y seminal de Fagara coco (Gill.) Engler (Rutaceae). Lilloa 41: 71-84.
Yaman, Ö (2005). The morphological, anatomical and palynological characteristic of hackberry (Celtis australis L. growing naturally in Turkey. M. Sc. thesis submitted to Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Graduate Scholl of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Engineering.
Zavada M. (1983). Pollen Morphology of Ulmaceae. Grana 22: 23-30.




How to Cite

Shahbaz, S. E., & Sharif, N. M. (2017). Anatomical and Palynological Characters of Celtis L. In Kurdistan-Iraq. Science Journal of University of Zakho, 5(1), 57–63.



Science Journal of University of Zakho