Pathogenicity of Phaeoacremonium Aleophilum Associated with Grapevine Decline in Kurdistan Region-Iraq

  • Raed A. Haleem University of Duhok
  • Samir K. Abdullah University of Zakho
  • Jaladat M. S. Jubraell University of Duhok
Keywords: Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, grapevine, Iraq


The disease severity of Phaeoacremonium.  aleophilum on the symptomatic leaves of  Taefi (cv.) ranged between 0.27-0.32 after two and four months of inoculation with significant difference from  Rashmew (cv.) Pathogenicity test was performed on two cultivars, Taefi and Rashmew, under the greenhouse conditions. One year-old rooted grape cuttings were inoculated with P. aleophilum  by two methods, injecting the spore suspension into the green shoots, and artificial inoculation of wounded shoots with mycelial mat. Symptoms appeared as brownish to black discoloration in a longitudinal section of all plant shoots. The highest canker length (20.67 mm) was produced after four months of wounding on Taefi shoots with significant difference from control treatment. Inoculation by wounding shoots was more effective than injecting shoots. P. aleophilum caused significant reduction in fresh and dry weight of green shoots compared with non- inoculated treatment. Under field condition, two methods of inoculation were adopted, wounding the green shoots, and drilling a hole into the grapevine arms followed by inoculation with mycelial mat. The highest canker length (17.50 mm) was obtained after 5 months on wounded shoots of Rashmew (cv.) with a significant difference from  Taefi (cv.).This pathogen has been reported for the first time in Iraq.

Author Biographies

Raed A. Haleem, University of Duhok

Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of  Duhok, Kurdistan – Region, Iraq.

Samir K. Abdullah, University of Zakho

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zakho, Kurdistan – Region, Iraq.

Jaladat M. S. Jubraell, University of Duhok

Scientific Research Center, University of  Duhok, Kurdistan – Region, Iraq.


Agrios, G. N. (2005). Plant Pathology, 5th. ed. San Diego, CA, USA, Elsevier-Academic Press. 922pp.
Edwards, J.; G. Marchi and I. Pascoe. (2001). Young esca in Australia. Phytopathol. Mediterr. 40: 303–310.
Feliciano, A. J.; A. Eskalen and W. D. Gubler. (2004). Differential susceptibility of three grapevine cultivars to Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in California. Phytopathol. Mediterr. 43: 66–69.
Gubler, W. D.; A. Eskalen; A. J. Feliciano and A. Khan. (2001). Susceptibility of grapevine pruning wounds to Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, and Phaeoacremonium spp. Phytopathol. Mediterr. 40: 482–483 (Abst.).
Gubler, W. D.; T. S. Thind; A. J. Feliciano and A. Eskalen. (2004). Pathogenicily of Phaeoacremonium spp. and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora on grape berries in California Phytopathol. Mediterr. 43:70-74.
Haleem, R. A. (2010). Morphological and molecular identification of fungi associate with grapevine decline phenomena in Duhok governorate .Ph. D thesis. Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Duhok. 145 p.
Haleem, R. A.; S. K. Abdullah; and J. M. S. Jubrieel (2011). Morphological and molecular identification of Phaeoacremonium aleophilum associate with grapevine decline phenomena in Duhok governorate. J. Basrah Researches (Sci.) 37:1-8.
Halleen, F; L. Mostert; and P. W. Crous. (2007). Pathogenicity testing of lesser known vascular fungi of grapevines. Australas Plant Pathol 36:277–285.
Harrington, T. C.; J. Steimel; F. Workneh and X. B. Yang. (2000). Molecular identification of fungi associated with vascular discoloration of soybean in the north central United States. Plant Dis 84:83– 88.
Larignon, P. and B. Dubos. (1997). Fungi associated with esca disease in grapevine. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 103: 147–157.
Mickenny, H. H. (1923). Influence of soil temperature and moisture on infection of wheat seedling by Helminthosporium sativum. J. Agri. Res. 26: 195-217.
Mugnai, L.; A. Graniti and G. Surico. (1999). Esca (Black measles) and brown wood streaking: two old and elusive disease of grapevines. Plant Dis. 83: 404-418.

Phillips, A. J. L. (1998). Botryosphaeria dothidea and other fungi associated with Excoriose and dieback of grapevines in Portugal. J. Phytopathol. 146: 327– 332.
Rego, C.; H. Oliveira; A. Carvalho and A. Phillips. (2000). Involvement of Phaeoacremonium spp. and Cylindrocarpon destructans with grapevine decline in Portugal. Phytopathol. Mediterr. 39: 76–79.
SAS. (1999). SAS/STAT User’s Guide, Version 8.2, 1st printing. Vol. 2. SAS Institute Inc, SAS Campus Drive, Gary, North Carolina.
Scheck, H. J.; S. J. Vasquez and W. D. Gubler. (1998). First report of three Phaeoacremonium spp. causing young grapevine decline in California. Plant Dis. 82: 590 (abstract).
Sparapano, L.; G. Bruno and A. Graniti. (2001). Three-year observation of grapevines cross-inoculated with esca-associated fungi. Phytopathol. Mediterr. 40: 376–386.
Van Niekerk, J. M.; P. W. Crous; J. Z. Groenewald; P. H. Fourie and F. Halleen. (2004). DNA phylogeny, morphology and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeria species on grapevines. Mycologia 96:781-798.
How to Cite
Haleem, R., Abdullah, S., & Jubraell, J. (2013). Pathogenicity of Phaeoacremonium Aleophilum Associated with Grapevine Decline in Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Science Journal of University of Zakho, 1(2), 612-619. Retrieved from
Science Journal of University of Zakho