Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among Children in Various Localities of Duhok City and Nearby Villages
This study was performed from December 2008 to August 2009 to investigate the prevalence rates of intestinal parasites (intestinal protozoa and helminthes) among children of different socioeconomic classes, sexes, and age groups in Duhok city and nearby villages. A total number of 1132 stool samples were examined of ages ranging from 5 month to 13 years old. The total rate of infection, which was 27.1 %( 307), for protozoa 26.1%(295) and for helminthes 1.06%(12). In this study the following parasites were found: Giardia lamblia, Entameba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, Entameba coli, Trichomonas hominis and Iodamoeba butschlii. The highest rate of infection was with G. lamblia 11.92% (135), followed by E. histolytica 10.15%(115), B. hominis 1.06%(12), E. coli(0.61% (7), H. nana 0.53% (6), E. vermicularis 0.35% (4), I. butschlii (0.17% (2) and T. hominis 0.08% (1). The majority of parasitic infection was single 282(24.91%), double and triple infections were very little (0.97%) and (0.08%) respectively. There was a significant difference between the rates of infection between males (29.6%) and females (22.1% (p< 0.05), significant differences ( p< 0.05) were observed between different age groups. The highest rate of infection (33.5%) was among the age group 5-7 years, followed by the age group 2-4 years , 8-10 years and infants (5 month-2 year), which were 32.8%, 28.1% and 20.4%, respectively. The lowest (15.9%) rate was recorded among the age group 11-13 years. There were significant differences (p<0.05) between the rates of infection in Heevy hospital (31.6%), rural's primary schools (25.8%) and urban’ primary schools (22.9%).
Addiss, D. G. et al.(1991) Evaluation of commercially available enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay of Giardia lamblia antigen in stool. Journal of clinical microbiology, 29(6): 1137-24.
Ahmad,Q. M. (2006).Prevalence of intestinal parasites among foodhandlers and primary Schoolchildren in Erbil province, with initial cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica Schaudinn, 1903. M.Sc. Thesis. Coll. Sc. Univ. Salahaddin, 124pp.
AL-Abiady, N.A.K. (1988). The correlation of helminthic ova and protozoan cysts in human and in dust in and around houses in some villages around Mosul. M. Sc. Thesis, Univ. Mosul: 83pp.
Ali, S. M. (2009).Prevalence of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica in Infected children in Kalar town with some serological and biochemical Parameters. M.Sc. Thesis. Univ.of Sulaimani.
Al-Fahdawi,S. Sh. Sh. (2002).The spread of infection with intestinal parasites among patients in Al- Anbar Province. M.Sc. Thesis, College of Science, Univ. of Al- Anbar.
AL-Kachachae, I. M. Y.(1989). Study on the incidence of human intestinal parasites in some village in Neneveh province with study of the effects of some physical and chemical factors on the development and viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs. M.Sc Thesis. Univ. Mosul, 106p.
Al-Khalefawi, M. J. M. (2006). Study on the parasites of digestive canal of children under five years and their effects on some blood parameters. M.Sc. Thesis. Science College, Univ. Al-Mustansirya, 112p.
AL-Saeed, A.T. ; Saeed, A .Y. and Mohammed ,J. B.(2001). Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among population in Dohuk - Kurdistan region -Iraq . Zanko J.Med .Sci., 5(special issue ): 14-19.
AL-Saeed, A. T. and Issa, S .H. (2006). Frequency of Giardia lamblia among children in Duhok, northern Iraq .Health journal, 12(5): 1-7.
Al-Shuaibi, M. M. M. (2000). A comparative study on the infection with intestinal parasites among primary school students in Baghdad province. M. Sc. Thesis, Science College, Univ. Al- Mustansirya, 77p.
Al-Taie, A. F.(1983). Hookworm infection among rural around Mosul City. M.Sc. Thesis. Coll. Med. Univ. Mosul.
Bern C. ; Martines J. ; de Zoysa I. & Glass RI.(1992).The magnitude of the global problem of diarrhoeal disease: a ten- year update. Bull World Health Organ.70:705-714 .
Blaauwgeers, J .L. & Wagtmans, M. J. (2004). Diagnostic image (179). A woman with abdominal pain and weight loss. Intestinal infection with Strongyloides stercoralis] Ned TijdschrGeneeskd ,148-479.
Brito L. L; Barreto, M. L.;SilvaRde C.; Assis, A. M. ; Reis, M. G.; Parasail, I et al.(2003) . Risk factors for iron –deficiency anemia in children and adolescent with intestinal helminthic infections, Rev Panam Salud Publica., 414: 422- 431.
Develoux, M. Alarou, A. and Mouchet, F.(1990).High prevalence of giardiasis in an urban population in Naiger. J.Trop. Med. Hyg.,93(1): 355-356.
Dubey M.P.; Gupta P.S. and ChuttaniH.K. (1965). The prevalence of Amoabiasis in Delhi, India. The Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 68, 153-154.
Hama, A. (2007). Intestinal parasites in relation to malnutrition among primary school children in Erbil province, with evaluation of some anti- parasitic drugs. M.Sc.Thesis, Univ. Salahadeein.
Hawezy, A. A.(2000).The causes of diarrheal infection among children in Erbil distric. M. Sc. Thesis. Coll. Med. Univ. Duhok.pp82.
Hussein, R. H.(2003). Epidemiological study of intestinal parasites among population in Sulimani district. M.Sc. Thesis. Univ. Salahaddin.
Orabi, M . A .(2000). Epidemiological study of intestinal parasites in per-Schoolchildren in AL-Jiftlik Area - Jordan Valley. M.Sc. Thesis,Unvi. An-Nana National, Nablus,Palestine.
Okyay P. ; Ertug S . ; Gultekin B. ; Onen O . &Beser E . (2004). Intestinal parasites prevalence and related factors in school children, a western city sample –Turkey. BMC publ. Hlth , 4:64.hing, M.J. G. and Macaden,R.(1990).Intestinal amoebiasis and giardiasis in southern Indian infants and children. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hygi.,84: 382-384.
Shetty, N.; Narasimha,M.; Raghuveer, T.S.; Elliott,E.; Fart -Shubair, M.E. ; Yassin, M.M. ; Al-Hindi Al-Wahaidi A. A. (2000).Jadallah hemoglobin level and nutritional status of schoolchildren in Gaza. Journal of Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 30 (2): 365-375.
WorldHealth Organization. (1981) Intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. WHO Technical Report series No. 666, Geneva.
World Health Organization Statistics. (1992). Communicable disease .Epidemiology & control, 45, Geneva.
World Health Organization. (1998). Control of tropical diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization. pp 201.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work, with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online.